Last month it was that time of the year when South Africa and the world catch the fever of the Mandela day Sabbath; I say Sabbath because this Mandela day has become a quasi-religious event blindly followed by people who are not prepared to question what the hype about the day is all about or where it actually emanates from. We are stuck with a cult figure more powerful than the Dalai Lama and Pope combined, yet we cannot actually point out what deed of his earned him this sainthood among people, even a messianic status of some sort.
Mandela enjoys unquestioned Christhood as a saviour of black people when in fact he is the Dalai Lama/Pope of the Imperialist West’s neo-colonialism project, the direct opposite of what he is celebrated for. Why? Because the media was cunningly used to sell what, alongside the HIV/AIDS story, is the biggest propaganda manipulation to mislead the masses in human history – the lie that Mandela liberated black people when all he did was deliver them on a silver platter to Imperialist West for another round of unremitting, ruthless molestation under the exploitative project of neo-colonialism. He simply sold the people out.
There’s classic old saying in English that a picture says a 1000 words; and that this statement is gospel truth is indisputable, because Brett Murray’s “The Spear” painting would not have hit home like it did, neither would Zapiro’s cartooning give Zuma headaches like it does. Above I have five pictures – a metaphorical representation of 5000 words, as touted by the above-mentioned saying – out of which I will squeeze out my interpretation of the “1000 words” each picture offers me…
Now that our people have spent their 67 minutes in honour of Mandela’s legacy, I urge them to spend another 67 minutes of any day that suits them reading this article (and “reading” the 5 pictures for themselves of course) and digesting the views shared within it, and verifying them through research of their own; after which they can decide whether indeed Mandela’s legacy is one worth honouring by us Africans, or is it really a legacy marred with beguiling deceit...
UNDERSTANDING THE LABRYINTH OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM
To fully understand the African struggle against Western Imperialism, and why Nelson Mandela really has been a regressive factor to that struggle; one must understand the very labyrinth of it; its cunning approach. Then only we can begin to see that democracy in South Africa is non-existent; instead we have a placebo in place that is even more brutal than right out enslavement because all we live on are future broken promises and more promises that will never be delivered, thus we put our guard down and allow criminals to exploit us in the name of the rainbow nation myth and its unequal equality, and Madiba magic deception.
Imperialism facilitated by the West on Africa over the last 350 years has been dynamic and metamorphosing in its approach. First it was right out, brutal enslavement of blacks for trade like cattle in slave-trade routes, predominantly the trans-Atlantic route.
When the system of slavery had used up its energy, new devices to take over the baton had been designed already. Slavery was abolished and in no time replaced with colonialism - a better tool of gain that meant that there was no longer a need to transport slaves across seas to work in the West, but it was now a matter of enslaving them in their own backyards by means of cheap labour exploitation. This cheap labour was forced onto Africans; they were used to dig out their own resources for the gain of colonial masters, while they themselves benefitted nothing but hardships of being second-tier citizens, who lived under perpetual abuse in the hands of white supremacy.
But like slavery before it, colonialism was bound to get to a point where it was no longer the most viable tool of gain for imperialists; and like colonialism replaced slavery, colonialism needed to be replaced in order to continue the merciless looting of Africa’s resources. Neo-colonialism was the new plan, it would continue where its predecessor left off; but what made it and still makes it more nefarious than both slavery and colonialism was that it used the very leaders of the so-called liberation movements as agents in its plans.
The West negotiated – CODESA style – with the post-colonialism leaders of African countries to keep its power in place and retain all that had been stolen during colonialism in their position, while the leaders would be let in on some personal gain schemes to keep them happy. If leaders of some movements resisted, the former colonisers financed coups for opposition movements and rebel groups who had bought into their idea to come into power; and once in power, the movement leaders would be brought into the spoils, made compradors of imperialism, and in no time they forgot the masses still toiling in sickening poverty and started to feast on their small share of the pie of exploitation thrown to them by the imperialist forces. Another way would be civil wars, which opened up mass looting opportunities at even lower costs for the west.
This is what has made Western Imperialism so successful, its ability to mutate time and again when conditions required a new approach. Neo-colonialism’s success depended on how it would be implemented; it had to be in such a way that was not met with immediate resistance. To solidify neo-colonialism and be able to sell it to Africa, the west needed an ambassador for its project, someone who would be used by the west to say look at this leader, he complied with our deal and his country is happy, so follow his example; and no better person than Mandela was suited for this.
He was already an international media personality after having been used as a rallying point for international media attention against Apartheid by the ANC for many years; so all that had to be done was to turn all the media focus on Mandela as a freedom fighter who singlehandedly saved South Africa and give him endless credit and perks like the Nobel Prize, and messianic status. All he had to do was to buy into this deal and sign on the dotted line…UNDERSTANDING HOW PROPAGANDA IS SOLD BY THE MEDIA
The legendary Malcolm X warns that the media is so powerful that it has the power to make the innocent look guilty and the guilty look innocent; he terms it the most powerful tool in the world (, rightly so because the tool most used by oppressors to keep the mind of the oppressed under their control is nothing other than media. Biko teaches us that why we remain in bondage is precisely because of the mind control that the oppressors are able to keep us, the oppressed, in check. Through the media they tell us how and what to think, so the focal area of our thoughts will not be a revolution, thus allowing them to continue freely with their exploitation.
The media has been at the epicentre of every imperialist venture propagated by the West. It was at the centre of the propaganda of the “war against terror” farce, only this was a way to establish a way to steal the vast oil reserves of Middle-Eastern countries, Afghanistan and Iraq in particular. They created a storyline which the world bought into, and one by one they raided these poor countries and seized what they wanted.
The truth is Al-Qaeda is a creation of the CIA; it never existed in Islamic countries prior to the fabrication. Oh and Osama bin Laden, or should I say Tim Osman, was a CIA agent. On the same wave of propaganda, Muammar Gaddafi was targeted and killed after 40 years of resistance; and similar propaganda, of nuclear weapons, is being used to target Iran.
Similarly, the drug war in Central and South America is another farce that imperialism uses to infiltrate those countries, oust revolutionary leaders and put their own, controlled, puppet regimes in power so exploitation can carry on. Why do you think that during the Chavez reign in Venezuela, Spain went into financial crisis and needed a bailout from the Eurozone?
Simple, Chavez severed exploitation of his country’s oil resources; that’s why he, like many South American revolutionaries, died of “cancer”. I need to reassure you that there isn’t really a war on drugs; organisations like the CIA specifically have made and still make trillions from drug money and finance drug operations coming from South America and the Golden Triangle that ultimately also make it into the US and the rest of the world.
Here in Africa we have the financed civil wars, where rebels are employed by the West to destabilise countries’ governance, making them ungovernable and thus creating an environment for free looting to flourish. A classic example of this currently is the Democratic Republic of Congo; an extremely blessed and rich country in terms of mineral resources, be it diamonds, copper, manganese, zinc, you name them. Here, the West employs Rwanda and Uganda to support the rebel war by financing the M23 through these countries and then continue the looting escapade of the beautiful Congo. Of course they will deploy the so-called peace keeping missions; but trust me when I tell you that keeping peace is never the objective of the UN.
The United Nations is run and controlled by imperialists, America and its allies, and only decisions taken by them matter; if you resist, they veto you at the Security Council – their own kangaroo court. If they want resources from your country and you do not play ball like Qaddafi, Saddam Hussein and the likes; they finance civil unrest and then NATO is on your doorstep…
No one pertinently sums up the sham that mainstream media really is, than American author Mark Twain (1835 – 1910) is his quote: “If you don’t read the newspaper, you are uninformed; if you read the newspaper, you are misinformed.” Don’t believe them brethren, they are in on it; they are selling you what the powers that be want you to know, not what you should know!!!NOW, TO WHAT THE PICTURES SAY…
At many points in history, there are people who had invested in them the power to change the course of history by virtue of their decisions; but because of those decisions that they took, we are only left to wonder how different would things be had they opted to do things differently. Where would Burkina Faso be today had Blaise Compaor? not collaborated with the west to coup and murder Thomas Sankara?
Where would the Congo be had Mobutu not plotted with Belgium, USA and Britain to overthrow Patrice Lumumba and hand him over for execution? Where would Guinea be had Inocêncio Kani not collaborated with the Portuguese to assassinate Amilcar Cabral? Yes my question is, where would South Africa be, had Mandela opted for the honourable route as a true representative of the people would have done, and not signed a deal with the devil for his own personal gain, pulling a Judas Iscariot on us?
In the 1ST PICTURE, Nelson Mandela is pictured with Margaret Thatcher
; at one point the most powerful woman in world politics. She was powerful simply because she was at the forefront of British Imperialism as Prime Minister, and she did serve with distinction to her masters. In 1987 Margaret Thatcher uttered these words: “The ANC is a typical terrorist organisation; anyone who thinks that the ANC is going to run the government in South Africa is living in cloud cuckoo-land.” If you don’t understand the involvement of Britain in South Africa, you would think that she was being defamatory; but Margaret Thatcher knew exactly what she was talking about, she understood what was going to happen. The ANC doesn’t govern South Africa; they are the faces of imperialism in what is still a British-American controlled economy to this day.
The ANC’s job is to keep the wrath of the people manageable, so that their bosses can continue the exploitation of resources. Like many organisations who claim to fight for freedom forget about the people, the masses once some chunk of meat is thrown at them from the master’s table, the ANC went down a similar route, once let in on some part of the wealth; they became “yes sir no sir” boys of the imperialists. All it took was them being told they would benefit on things like BEE and get co-opted to businesses they did not even know how to run by themselves and all the blood spilt over 350 years in defence of our land was forgotten.
I always hear people talking about “Economic Freedom”; saying that Mandela and his generation attained political freedom and it is thus up to the current generation of youth to fight for economic freedom. Brethren, you must understand that imperialism knows how to invent lies that sound very good, because there is no such thing as political freedom existing as a stand-alone from economic power.
Freedom is a holistic entity, it is achieved as is and not in compartments; you are either free or you are not, and there’s nothing in between. A prisoner in solitary confinement, eating crumbs and sleeping on the floor with no blanket, and a prisoner who has a nutritious menu, a good mattress, and even time for television and gym are both prisoners; yes the one might have better conditions to live under, but they are both prisoners nonetheless.
Similarly, an oppressed individual who is called a kaffir openly, gets kicked in the ribs lawfully and is forced to carry an identification book at all times, and an oppressed individual who can vote, walk around as they please at night without identifying themselves are both still oppressed.
Baron Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812), who is the founder of the Rothschild Banking Dynasty, aptly put it: “Give me control of a nation’s money supply and I care not who makes their laws.” (Coogan, 1935). He knew the very same concept that I am now sharing with you, that whoever controls the means of production in a country, de facto the money supply, is the one with the real power; the politicians can sell all the lip they want to, it is in the economy where power rests. Using this knowledge, generation after generation of Rothschild came and carried forward what they had started, and they are arguably the wealthiest family on earth today. Their net worth? Incalculable… Let’s just say that they loan governments money at crazy interest rates among other things!!! Now real freedom is when means of production dwells with the people, not a select few like Rothschild, Oppenheimer, Ackerman, Rupert; it is when all people benefit from the wealth and money supply of the country, not those who align themselves to be beneficiaries at the expense of the people like Mandela, Ramaphosa, Zuma and the likes. As the status quo is in South Africa, people will have to rise up and struggle for freedom, or it will remain a distant dream while the molestation of imperialism on our people relentlessly continues.
We see in PICTURE 2, the “heroic” Mr Mandela seated in a chariot with the Queen of England
. Queen Elizabeth to me represents the British throne, which has been at the forefront of the most atrocious genocides known to mankind; they have annihilated whole tribes of people altogether in their conquest to rule world. Whenever I see her picture, I hear cries of the Lakota and other American Indian tribes that today do not exist precisely because of the British; I am reminded of how as recent as 1975, any white man in Australia could obtain a hunting licence to hunt and kill Aborigines like game, all because of the British philosophy that people who are not of European descent are not human.
To the British, any race that is not white is akin to mere animals, no more than a troop of baboons; it is for this reason that they felt nothing at all oppressing one third of the world’s population at one point, just for their personal gain. Seeing Queen Elizabeth’s picture reminds me of the countless crimes against humanity – spanning over centuries – that Britain committed globe throughout, but never accounted for; in her eyes I see countless slaves tied down like oxen and driven by the whip from main land Africa to the West Coast bordering the Atlantic, to be piled up in ships like lifeless cargo. I hear the cries of all the lynched slaves in American plantations, and the wails of widows bemoaning lost husbands to these brutal executions whenever her name is mentioned; I see her mouth and hands covered with blood of the countless black babies who were fed to alligators by slave-masters of the extension of her empire in America.
However, we see the beloved hero not ashamed to align himself with the face of all this ruthlessness, he is a beloved son of Britain that they erected a Statue of him in Parliament square, London – shown in PICTURE 5
. He is put up there with the best servicemen of the Empire, and his name carried next to the likes of Cecil John Rhodes. Ever heard of the Mandela-Rhodes Scholarship? Well this is a scholarship designed to take African students that show high potential and equip them for roles in neo-colonialism that is pioneered by South Africa; the same way that the Rhodes scholarship did for British Colonialism since 1902.
For those who don’t know, Cecil John Rhodes was a ruthless Englishmen who had not an iota of feeling for blacks. Leading the British conquest of South Africa’s minerals, having founded De Beers (De Beers was financed into existence by Nathan MeyerRothschild – great-grandson of the founder of the Dynasty who I mentioned above), and also leading British rule to our neighbour Zimbabwe and Zambia north of it (The two countries, known as Southern and Northern Rhodesia respectively in past times, were named after him), many a black man suffered at the hand of this man.
The first Chimurenga of the Zimbabwean people in the 1890s was an uprising against atrocities inflicted by Rhodes’ company, British South Africa Company, and it ended with executions of the likes of Mbuya Nehanda. In his meditations in 1893 his states: “Nine-tenths of them (blacks) will have to spend their lives in manual labour, the sooner that is brought to them, the better.”; he further says: “We must find new lands from which we can easily obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit the cheap slave labour that is available from the natives of the colonies. The colonies would also provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods produced in our factories”. (Britten, 2006:167).
As you can see that he was a white supremacist of distinction, he lived for the British Empire and to propagate its ruthless imperialism; in his last will testament he writes: “I contend that we are the first race in the world, and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race...If there be a God, I think that what he would like me to do is paint as much of the map of Africa British Red as possible..." ("The Story of Africa". BBC World Service) Aimed at following the hermeneutics of this mantra of imperialistic gain, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes scholarship were founded by Nathan Meyer Rothschild (see that name?) when Rhodes died.
Now is the question not popping up at the back of your head why Nelson Mandela wants to associate himself with all I mention above? Why he is a tool in shielding and glorifying a murderous heritage of the British Empire with all the falsehood that permeates controlled media? Why they put him on the notes of their privately owned South African Reserve Bank as is depicted in PICTURE 4?
You do the math…PICTURE 3 shows our beloved hero in the company of FW De Klerk
. Now if the whole process of creating the rainbow nation farce was a movie, De Klerk would have won an Oscar for best supporting actor; we all know who best lead actor goes to… oh but wait, they won the Nobel for it, excuse my feint memory! FW De Klerk is a representation of Afrikaner supremacy, a microcosm of white supremacy that manifested itself as Apartheid in South Africa. A strategist of the system, he was a key component in the facilitation of the new South Africa into existence; he was clear about his job even so, stating that he was not going to negotiate himself out of power. Black people need to understand that a revolution is non-negotiable, and there is no bargain that goes about it; whenever leaders go into negotiations with the oppressive forces and what results is a win-win situation, know that your leaders sold you out for their own gain.
What came out of CODESA was that ANC became an extension of the National Party; it was a change of faces of the status quo but no change to the status quo itself. After 11 years of excellent service by the ANC to the system of capitalism that unforgivingly blood-sucks blacks on a daily basis, proving their worth of being able to crack the whip on blacks just as well as the Malan, Vorster, Botha and De Klerk governments; the National Party officially co-opted ANC to itself with a merger that took place in August 2005. It was merely officialising the marriage that had already taken place at CODESA; in which a transition of government faces took place – black ones replaced white ones in a rent-a-black project – while policies kept the power locked with the imperialists.
We need to be Frank about things like Chikane’s book intended to be; there really is not any significant difference between a black man in 2013 and a black man in 1983. This is because ’94 changed nothing; blacks are still the wretched of the earth they were before 1994. 80% of the land is still white-owned and 100 years after the treacherous land act of 1913 the ANC is adamant that they will not budge on their policies that allow the land to remain in the hands of a white minority that constitutes a meagre 13% of the population, how dare blacks think they can take land back from white masters and rhinos?
White people worked hard for the land isn’t it? We are told that they bought the land; I guess the 100 year war of the Xhosas lasting from the 1700s to the 1800s and the battle of Isandlwana in 1879, all attempting resistance against British seizure of land from the natives were fair economic transactions huh? Whenever blacks voice out their concerns they are told that they can’t use the land, that they are not skilled as white people to can run mines therefore it is a good thing that our wealth is taking by imperialists for their personal gain. Last year August Lonmin (London Minerals), sitting on the third biggest platinum mine in the world, collaborated with the ANC to mimic their own Sharpeville by mowing down with bullets black workers who stood up and demanded better wages after they realised NUM was another neo-colonialist demagoguery project whose objective was not to stand up for them, but to help the exploiters continue so they could benefit from kickbacks (well now it is public that COSATU and affiliated union bosses screw their workers – pun intended). I mean NUM bosses are trustees in the investment companies – NUMPROP and MIC – that sleep with mining houses in the form of business relations and tenders; how then is it expected that they represent the interests of the employees when they themselves benefit directly from the exploitation of the employees? It’s like sending a jackal to represent sheep against a wolf; only one result is possible there – a sell-out.
It is no secret that the vestiges of apartheid and colonial economic patterns, ownership and control remain intact; for instance: Leibbrandt, M. et al. (2010), "Trends in South African Income Distribution and Poverty since the Fall of Apartheid" shows that in terms of racial distribution of per capita income, African and Coloured income levels in 2008 were still only 13% and 22% respectively of white per capita income, compared to 10.9% and 19.3% in 1993. The income gap for Indians has narrowed, with Indian per capita income in 2008 standing at 60% of those of whites as against 42% in 1993. In 1995, median per capita expenditure among Africans was R333 a month compared to whites at R3 443 a month. In 2008, median expenditure per capita for Africans was R454 a month compared to whites at R5 668 a month. We are stuck with a blatantly skewed system that feeds itself at our loss; while Zuma earns more than Obama in terms of citizen ratio, the black male has an average salary of R2400 that falls far short of the R19000 of the white male. Yet pictured FW De Klerk is lifting Nelson Mandela’s hand in a triumphant fashion; a sign of Nelson Mandela having won the battle. The question however is: On whose side was he fighting? He claims to have fought against black domination, but nowhere have I seen blacks dominating on any level in South Africa at any point since that dreadful Autumn day in 1652, so as to what he was fighting against I am not sure.
I am sorry that the ANC did not tell you the truth my people; they spoke about reconstruction and development, yet the piece they forgot to mention was that this RDP programme was aimed only at their mansions in high-class white suburbs, and the scraps you would get were degrading matchbox houses akin to dog kernels and open toilets that intend to further humiliate your undignified existence. They also did not tell you that should you cry for clean drinking water you would be met with parabellum boot soles and live rounds of ammunition a la Andries Tatane; you probably thought that Vlakplas ended with Eugene de Kock, little did you know that ANC had a bigger “Kock” to screw you with. Well here we are, and this is where Mandela’s heroics have landed us…
Patrice Lumumba, in his last letter to his wife before being martyred, teaches us that history that will absolve African heroes like him is not that which will be taught in Brussels, London, Paris, Washington nor the United Nations, but in African countries which have been freed from the claws of imperialism. The fact that Mandela’s legacy is celebrated in London and all other imperialist strongholds as I showed above indicates clearly that he is a puppet of imperialism and is used for imperialist agenda advancement. It cannot be that the system that murdered Lumumba for his ideas before he even implemented them in the Congo; that murdered Thomas Sankara after he had set the pattern for other African states to follow in a mere four years of power (unlike 2 decades of lies we have received here), rejecting the world bank and IMF and drastically transforming Burkina Faso, can equally turn and cherish Mandela as they do if he was indeed a genuine revolutionary.
Your kids learn about the French revolution, Nazi Germany, American Revolution, but never do they learn about the Chimurenga or the Battle of Adwa or the knowledge harboured in Timbuktu. The same system teaches them about Louis XVI, Abraham Lincoln and Winston Churchill, but fails to mention Kwame Nkrumah, Amilcar Cabral, Marcus Garvey, Frantz Fanon or Malcolm X. They rather your children read books by Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and George Orwell; but none by Chinua Achebe, Tsitsi Dangarembga or Ngugi wa Thiongo. This very same system holds Mandela in high esteem; he is the archetypal black man according to them. Ask Robert Mugabe, when you are doing what the system requires of you, you are a hero; you become a monkey when you start to address the real needs of the black man, like land dispossession. Before 2000, Robert Mugabe had accolades from institutions all over the world and one by one they were revoked after the land reform programme; simply because he was no longer their puppet, Blair had been told to keep his England and stay away from Zimbabwe and how it addresses its affairs.
Whenever they tell you about “a long walk to freedom”, tell them that the only long walk that has taken place and is still taking place is that of thousands of black children in rural areas and white-owned farms, who walk countless kilometres on end to and from school on a daily basis – in blistering cold during the winter and scorching heat and unforgiving rains in summer – only to learn under a tree at the mercy of these weather conditions, and expected to miraculously produce results when not even textbooks are delivered to them. We will always have the most progressive constitution in the world for as long it is anti-black, but Sobukwe taught us long ago that it is impossible to implement something that is unjust in a just fashion; thus the wrath of the people will always at some point get to enough levels to inspire reform.
When Africa rewrites the narrative of history that Lumumba speaks about in his final words as he stared death in the eye without a quiver, let it rewrite a narrative that will truthfully present the legacy of Mandela as that which was at the centre of perpetuating a brutal system of relentless exploitation on our beloved continent. In Azania there must be no Mandela Bridge, mall, university, street or even squatter camp; the deception of Madiba magic must be buried with South Africa.
The only monument left to bear his name should be the Nelson Mandela theatre, as it shall be a constant reminder of the multi-award winning theatrics of the man; which deceived our people to a Rainbow Nation of freedom that still continues to enslave them, where equality is unequal, where justice is discriminatory. However, history must not forget him; his story must be a constant reminder for future generations, of what not to do…
That we have to overthrow this tyranny and oppression in our strife for true egalitarianism is not in doubt; it is just a matter of when. Slavoj Zizek asserts that regicide (the killing of a king) is not justified by showing that a king transgressed the people, because the very existence of a king is an offence against the people. Similary, a society that purports classism and stratification, creating a polarised control of resources by a few as we know imperialism and capitalism to do is de facto offensive to the people; and revolution against it is always justified.
YAMKELA FORTUNE SPENGANE is a Black Consciousness and Pan Afrikanism Scholar and proponent, and he writes in his own capacity.
Izwe lethu iAfrika!!!REFERENCES
1. Original Sources of used Images:
(Accessed 11 August 2013).
https://www.google.co.za/search?q=mandela+and+queen+elizabeth&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=aloSUuT8IsiihgffxoDwAw&ved=0CDkQsAQ&biw=1517&bih=693#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=MUqz_JXrPcorlM%3A%3BvH2xjrp1MUaHwM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.looklocal.co.za%252Flooklocal%252Faction%252Fmedia%252FdownloadFile%253Fmedia_fileid%253D564713%2526a%253D145%2526s%253D175x122%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.looklocal.co.za%252Flooklocal%252Fcontent%252Fen%252Fbenoni%252Fbenoni-news-general%253Foid%253D7577284%2526sn%253DDetail%2526pid%253D40%2526Queen-Elizabeth-II-to-honour-Nelson-Mandela%3B175%3B122 (Accessed 11 August 2013).
(Accessed 11 August 2013).
(Accessed 11 August 2013).
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Nelson_Mandela_on_Parliament_Square%2C_Westminster_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1229312.jpg/200px-Nelson_Mandela_on_Parliament_Square%2C_Westminster_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1229312.jpg (Accessed 11 August 2013).
2. BBC World Service, The story of Africa. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials/1624_story_of_africa/page26.shtml (Accessed 13 August 2013). 3. Britten, Sarah (2006). The Art of the South African Insult. 30° South Publishers. p. 167.
4. Coogan, G.M., (1935). Money Creator. Whitefish: Literary Licensing publishers.
5. Leibbrandt, M. et al. (2010), "Trends in South African Income Distribution and Poverty since the Fall of Apartheid", OECD Social, Employment and Migration
Working Papers, No. 101, OECD Publishing, © OECD. doi:10.1787/5kmms0t7p1ms-en
Disclaimer: All articles and letters published on MyNews24 have been independently written by members of News24's community. The views of users published on News24 are therefore their own and do not necessarily represent the views of News24. News24 editors also reserve the right to edit or delete any and all comments received.