The New Encyclopædia Britannica says this:"The growing complexity of modern society and its government thrusts ever greater power into the hands of administrators and committees of experts. Even in constitutional regimes, no fully satisfactory answer has been found to the question of how these bureaucratic decision makers can be held accountable and their powers effectively restrained without, at the same time, jeopardizing the efficiency and rationality of the policy-making process."
The 35th president of the United States,John F. Kennedy, once said: "An error doesn't have to become a mistake, until you refuse to correct it."
The emphasis being on you and your subsequent refusal to correct something before it becomes a mistake.
What exactly is rational thinking and is there a difference between it and say positive thinking?
Rational thinking has been defined as "the logic or reasoning that's involved in the thought process."
It refers to providing reasons or rational behind thoughts or ideas. It adds an element of calculation and planning to a steam of thoughts rather then basing them on emotion or personal opinion.
It is a kind of objective process of thinking and an analytic approach to any problem. Rational thinking is based on reasons or facts and is hence much more calculating and realistic.
We humans sadly are not born to think rational as per definition. However we can think rationally or irrationally by either applying or not applying stragetic and practical rationality to the thoughts we accept and to the actions we perform.
All people are capable of thinking rationally, but most people naturally tend to "cloud" out this ability because of emotions or prejudices.
Is this what makes us unique say from the animals? Webster’s Third New International Dictionary,largest and most comprehensive American dictionary ever,defines the word person as "a being that's characterized by conscious apprehension, rationality, and moral sense."
Some people say that you can’t avoid making mistakes and that you can only control how you react to them once you've made them. Also that you suppose to learn from your mistakes so as to not repeat them over and over again.
Does the orderly thought process help in cancelling out making these "natural phenomenas" called mistakes?
Thinking that is logical and analytical involves fine reasoning in the process of thought does it not.Rational thinking in which one fact supports another so you can create a strong hypothesis will then in turn convert itself into truth!
The systematic process of thinking where we can avoid our prejudices and emotions breathes rationalism. The sort of thinking process where we can analyse a problem or plan ahead for it from various angles. If we think in advance and decide properly, we can take better decisions and draw better conclusions.
Does rational thinking require adhering to perceptual reality?
Human thinking is the conceptual and logical process of identifying our sensory awareness of existence.Thinking rationally is valid, correct and the logical way to go about things.
Rational thinking starts with a sensory awareness of existence, the application of valid, reality-based concepts,and that which is consistently and systematically logic. The mental identification and integration of two or more particulars from our sensory awareness of existence makes for logic.
Do you need the anchoring effect to avoid mistakes?
The anchoring effect means "anchoring to predict the everyday outcome of events, to estimate how much time something will take or how much money something will cost you.
If you need to choose between an option, an estimate or a value, you need sound footing or anchoring to stand on. Judgments regarding the frequency, probability and value all need a fixed point of reference or an anchor to avoid making mistakes.
If you look at the process of judgment by humans or the principles that govern any of our judgment calls,its there where a centrally located process gets reinforced by such phenomena's as affective equilibrium or the "round figure syndrome/tendency" and the relation that has towards reaction time to the certainty of judgment that demonstrates the need for an anchoring effect in developing the higher mental processes.
So does our improved rationality cancel out mistakes?
English poet and philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge once wrote:
"If men could learn from history, what lessons it might teach us."
An unknown writer once argued:
"A prudent person profits from personal experience, a wise one from the experience of others.”
2.John F. Kennedy quotes.
7.A Study of Anchoring Effects in Clinical Judgment by Ben A.Orcutt.