PLEASE NOTE:

MyNews24 is a user-generated section of News24.com. The stories here come from users.

 
Markrschulz
 
Comments: 23
Article views: 482
 
 
Latest Badges:



 
View all Markrschulz's badges.
 

This article has been selected as an Editor’s Choice report. Articles are selected based on quality of writing, audience response, newsworthiness and originality, and is at the discretion of the MyNews24 editors.

Learn how to debate!

07 December 2011, 11:02

Whenever I read comments and posts on news24, it’s easy to get swept up in emotive thinking, where people challenge our core beliefs and offend our feelings. This is an inevitable result of all human interaction. Disagreements occur and it’s easy to fall into tired old traps of sloppy thinking motivated not by the defense of our ideas, but rather maintaining our feeling of being right, or occupying the moral high ground. I would like to offer some pointers in this regard in order to help some people structure the defense of their ideas in a more coherent way. I know that I do not always adhere to these strict rules of argumentation, but I do feel that they are noble goals to which we can all aspire to in our writing endeavors.

 

One of the most frequently observed fallacies is the ‘ad hominem’ attacks. This fallacy holds that if you can discredit the person, you can discredit the ideas or ‘facts’ that he offers. Example: Statement: ‘Africans had not invented the wheel by the beginning of the nineteenth century.’ Counter argument: ‘That’s racist, and anyone stating that ‘fact’ to establish a theory pertaining to everything and anything is a racist by extension.’ This line is used time and time again by people, especially authorities who seem to revel in creating an ever expanding vocabulary of ad hominem terms that includes, but is not limited to, ‘counter-revolutionary’, ‘capitalist’, ‘agent’, ‘racist’ and ‘people who wish a return to apartheid’. Once it has been established that a person is any one of these things, all of their ideas and statements are supposedly instantly invalidated.

 

This leads onto the next common error, an argument from authority. The ANC claims that there are forces at work to reverse the gains of the revolution. They have no evidence of these forces or their activities so, without the ability to evaluate this claim on merit, they basically want you to trust them because they are the ANC. This kind of thinking produces statements like ‘poverty causes AIDS’ or ‘there IS no crime in South Africa’. It amounts to a petulant child insisting that they are right because he or she says so. Of course this is patently untrue, as the National Party was once in a position of authority and we all know that they were consistently wrong on too many issues to cover here.

 

An argument from adverse consequences is the type of argument that appeals to people’s fear of what will happen should the person’s ideas prove false. For example: Without a minimum wage, workers and their families would be starving on the streets. The straw man of abject poverty is a common thread that permeates our society at this point in time. Another example is that if we don’t institute measures to curb climate change, then we shall make the world uninhabitable in the near future.

 

The appeal to ignorance is also all too common. People have heard the line that ‘the absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence’. This is absolutely true, and is the counter argument to the fallacy that would claim that since there is no contrary evidence to a position it is automatically true, and likewise that if there is no supporting evidence to a position it is automatically false. I came across a good example of this kind of argument last week. Someone claimed that they had never seen a white person at a mass rally, get shot by the apartheid security forces, or putting up any ‘real’ resistance to the system and that therefore ‘all’ whites enjoyed apartheid and its benefits. Tell that to Joe Slovo, Nadine Gordimer and George Bizos. It only takes one exception to disprove the contention of absolute conformity to a norm. Furthermore, no one can prove a negative. If someone asked you to prove that you are not a racist, you could not do it, so stop rising to the bait. The onus is always on the accuser to prove the positive – that you are a racist – this is why people are considered innocent until proven guilty.

 

Special pleading is often a last resort or an argument. Question: How can socialist policies consistently result in megalomaniac dictators rising to the top of the system? Special plea: You don’t understand true socialism. No one has implemented it before. Stalin perverted Marxist theories for his own ends, etc. etc. We have heard it all before.

 

There are many serial offenders who love nothing more than to utilize observational selection or ‘cherry picking’ facts to support their own arguments. This includes taking quotes or events out of context or emphasizing ‘hits’ and covering up the ‘misses’. The ANC will bolster their human rights record with Mandela’s legacy and speeches imploring racial unity, but I’ll bet that you are unable to recall the last time you read about the necklacing of ‘collaborators’ in the 1980’s, or the activities in Quattro Camp in a government publication.

 

Misunderstanding or misrepresentation of statistics often fuels many a rant in the comments sections. 99% of this held by 1% of that! That’s unfair! On what timeframes or populations are these sound bite statistics based on? Is it a year, a month? People are not locked into these categories for life, the Forbes List changes every year, what happened to the people that were on the list last year? Are they now part of that populist ‘99%’? I think not. Household income has been in decline for the last fifty years?! Well, households have shrunk over the last fifty years. Citizens of first world countries are having fewer children and there are more singletons now than before. People sometimes express shock that half of the world’s population is below average intelligence. Thomas Sowell put these kinds of misunderstanding in a humorous light. ‘They say that a man is hit by a car every five minutes in New York City. He must get damn tired.

 

There are so many ways to improve our writing and argumentative skills, and I have really only scratched the surface with the above list. If people are interested in understanding the world, and sharing that understanding with others, do they not have a responsibility to do that to the best of their abilities? Accepting tired old arguments riddled with these and other intellectual fallacies has to be stamped out if we want to have real discussions about the issues raised by current events.

Disclaimer: All articles and letters published on MyNews24 have been independently written by members of News24's community. The views of users published on News24 are therefore their own and do not necessarily represent the views of News24. News24 editors also reserve the right to edit or delete any and all comments received.
 

Read News24’s Comments Policy

24.com publishes all comments posted on articles provided that they adhere to our Comments Policy. Should you wish to report a comment for editorial review, please do so by clicking the 'Report Comment' button to the right of each comment.

Comment on this story
23 comments
Add your comment
Comment 0 characters remaining

Read more from our Users

Submitted by
Katherine Frisk
Market is rigged

As soon as the London and the New York markets have opened, there has been a more and more obvious smashing of the price.  Read more...

1 comments 66 views
Submitted by
liljohnn
The Pied Piper of Nkandla.

They just watch as the sun sets on their dream, their hard fought dream. Read more...

0 comments 228 views
Submitted by
Monsternari@hell
SA Airlink - an expensive journey

Flying to Kimberley today from Cape Town return on Friday. Cost of ticket R 6500. Read more...

19 comments 3828 views
Submitted by
GMitch
Submitted by
Martin Malatjie
Disadvantaged students and poor f...

Every time when political demagogue are on the podium addressing students, they always promise free education, particularly tertiary education. Read more...

8 comments 356 views
Old people & Nurses

Old people… they are not a mysterious species that just one day ‘showed up’, we all know where they come from.  Read more...

5 comments 622 views

Jobs in Cape Town [change area]

Property [change area]

Travel - Look, Book, Go!

Magical Massinga

Spend 5 nights at the gorgeous Massinga Beach Lodge in Mozambique and only pay for 4 from R13 220 per person sharing. Includes return flights, accommodation, transfers and romantic turndown. Book now!

Kalahari.com - shop online today

Save up to 60% on toys!

Don’t miss out on this hot offer, save up to 60% on toys. While stocks last. Shop now!

Festive gifts!

Check out our awesome range of festive gifts to make everyone’s wishes come true. Shop now!

Seen something you like in our catalogue?

Find the perfect gift and save up to R5000 – As seen on the catalogue. Hurry and shop now!

Save up to R2200 on electronics! – As seen in the catalogue

Wishing for tech gadgets this festive? Save up to R2100 on hot tech products at kalahari.com. While stocks last. Shop now!

Up to 35% off books

Save up to 35% on the latest page-turners. While stocks last. Shop now!

OLX Free Classifieds [change area]

Samsung Galaxy s4

Mobile, Cell Phones in South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Town. Date October 24

Best bargain in big bay

Real Estate, Houses - Apartments for Sale in South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Town. Date October 25

VW Golf 6, 1.6 Trendline (Excellent condition)

Vehicles, Cars in South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Town. Date October 25

 

services

E-mail Alerts The latest headlines in your inbox

RSS feeds News delivered really simply.

Mobile News24 on your mobile or PDA

E-mail Newsletters You choose what you want

News24 on your iPhone Get News24 headlines on your iPhone.

SMS Alerts Get breaking news stories via SMS.

Blogs Your opinion on you, me and everyone.

Calais Website keywords automated by OpenCalais.

 
Interactive Advertising Bureau
 
© 2014 24.com. All rights reserved.
There are new stories on the homepage. Click here to see them.
 
English
Afrikaans
isiZulu

Hello 

Create Profile

Creating your profile will enable you to submit photos and stories to get published on News24.


Please provide a username for your profile page:

This username must be unique, cannot be edited and will be used in the URL to your profile page across the entire 24.com network.

Settings

Location Settings

News24 allows you to edit the display of certain components based on a location. If you wish to personalise the page based on your preferences, please select a location for each component and click "Submit" in order for the changes to take affect.








Facebook Sign-In

Hi News addict,

Join the News24 Community to be involved in breaking the news.

Log in with Facebook to comment and personalise news, weather and listings.