PLEASE NOTE:

MyNews24 is a user-generated section of News24.com. The stories here come from users.

 
Markrschulz
 
Comments: 23
Article views: 482
 
 
Latest Badges:



 
View all Markrschulz's badges.
 

This article has been selected as an Editor’s Choice report. Articles are selected based on quality of writing, audience response, newsworthiness and originality, and is at the discretion of the MyNews24 editors.

Learn how to debate!

07 December 2011, 11:02

Whenever I read comments and posts on news24, it’s easy to get swept up in emotive thinking, where people challenge our core beliefs and offend our feelings. This is an inevitable result of all human interaction. Disagreements occur and it’s easy to fall into tired old traps of sloppy thinking motivated not by the defense of our ideas, but rather maintaining our feeling of being right, or occupying the moral high ground. I would like to offer some pointers in this regard in order to help some people structure the defense of their ideas in a more coherent way. I know that I do not always adhere to these strict rules of argumentation, but I do feel that they are noble goals to which we can all aspire to in our writing endeavors.

 

One of the most frequently observed fallacies is the ‘ad hominem’ attacks. This fallacy holds that if you can discredit the person, you can discredit the ideas or ‘facts’ that he offers. Example: Statement: ‘Africans had not invented the wheel by the beginning of the nineteenth century.’ Counter argument: ‘That’s racist, and anyone stating that ‘fact’ to establish a theory pertaining to everything and anything is a racist by extension.’ This line is used time and time again by people, especially authorities who seem to revel in creating an ever expanding vocabulary of ad hominem terms that includes, but is not limited to, ‘counter-revolutionary’, ‘capitalist’, ‘agent’, ‘racist’ and ‘people who wish a return to apartheid’. Once it has been established that a person is any one of these things, all of their ideas and statements are supposedly instantly invalidated.

 

This leads onto the next common error, an argument from authority. The ANC claims that there are forces at work to reverse the gains of the revolution. They have no evidence of these forces or their activities so, without the ability to evaluate this claim on merit, they basically want you to trust them because they are the ANC. This kind of thinking produces statements like ‘poverty causes AIDS’ or ‘there IS no crime in South Africa’. It amounts to a petulant child insisting that they are right because he or she says so. Of course this is patently untrue, as the National Party was once in a position of authority and we all know that they were consistently wrong on too many issues to cover here.

 

An argument from adverse consequences is the type of argument that appeals to people’s fear of what will happen should the person’s ideas prove false. For example: Without a minimum wage, workers and their families would be starving on the streets. The straw man of abject poverty is a common thread that permeates our society at this point in time. Another example is that if we don’t institute measures to curb climate change, then we shall make the world uninhabitable in the near future.

 

The appeal to ignorance is also all too common. People have heard the line that ‘the absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence’. This is absolutely true, and is the counter argument to the fallacy that would claim that since there is no contrary evidence to a position it is automatically true, and likewise that if there is no supporting evidence to a position it is automatically false. I came across a good example of this kind of argument last week. Someone claimed that they had never seen a white person at a mass rally, get shot by the apartheid security forces, or putting up any ‘real’ resistance to the system and that therefore ‘all’ whites enjoyed apartheid and its benefits. Tell that to Joe Slovo, Nadine Gordimer and George Bizos. It only takes one exception to disprove the contention of absolute conformity to a norm. Furthermore, no one can prove a negative. If someone asked you to prove that you are not a racist, you could not do it, so stop rising to the bait. The onus is always on the accuser to prove the positive – that you are a racist – this is why people are considered innocent until proven guilty.

 

Special pleading is often a last resort or an argument. Question: How can socialist policies consistently result in megalomaniac dictators rising to the top of the system? Special plea: You don’t understand true socialism. No one has implemented it before. Stalin perverted Marxist theories for his own ends, etc. etc. We have heard it all before.

 

There are many serial offenders who love nothing more than to utilize observational selection or ‘cherry picking’ facts to support their own arguments. This includes taking quotes or events out of context or emphasizing ‘hits’ and covering up the ‘misses’. The ANC will bolster their human rights record with Mandela’s legacy and speeches imploring racial unity, but I’ll bet that you are unable to recall the last time you read about the necklacing of ‘collaborators’ in the 1980’s, or the activities in Quattro Camp in a government publication.

 

Misunderstanding or misrepresentation of statistics often fuels many a rant in the comments sections. 99% of this held by 1% of that! That’s unfair! On what timeframes or populations are these sound bite statistics based on? Is it a year, a month? People are not locked into these categories for life, the Forbes List changes every year, what happened to the people that were on the list last year? Are they now part of that populist ‘99%’? I think not. Household income has been in decline for the last fifty years?! Well, households have shrunk over the last fifty years. Citizens of first world countries are having fewer children and there are more singletons now than before. People sometimes express shock that half of the world’s population is below average intelligence. Thomas Sowell put these kinds of misunderstanding in a humorous light. ‘They say that a man is hit by a car every five minutes in New York City. He must get damn tired.

 

There are so many ways to improve our writing and argumentative skills, and I have really only scratched the surface with the above list. If people are interested in understanding the world, and sharing that understanding with others, do they not have a responsibility to do that to the best of their abilities? Accepting tired old arguments riddled with these and other intellectual fallacies has to be stamped out if we want to have real discussions about the issues raised by current events.

Disclaimer: All articles and letters published on MyNews24 have been independently written by members of News24's community. The views of users published on News24 are therefore their own and do not necessarily represent the views of News24. News24 editors also reserve the right to edit or delete any and all comments received.
 

Read News24’s Comments Policy

24.com publishes all comments posted on articles provided that they adhere to our Comments Policy. Should you wish to report a comment for editorial review, please do so by clicking the 'Report Comment' button to the right of each comment.

Comment on this story
23 comments
Add your comment
Comment 0 characters remaining

Read more from our Users

Submitted by
Terrylin Backpackers
The cheque is in the post

"I hear you are in bond collections. What are the latest excuses people are coming up with these days? I've run out of ideas." Read more...

5 comments 1018 views
Submitted by
Meta
News in the digital age

How do you think that spreading your hate/bigotry and or intolerance helps anybody? Read more...

13 comments 999 views
Submitted by
Brian Faul
How and why a Dictator is born

One needs to remember looking back in history these hard times is when a dictator is more likely to get born. It is during these hard times that a dictator gets voted into power. Read more...

10 comments 1821 views
Submitted by
Prenisha Naidoo
I will be proactive...

This letter is in response to articles on the death of baby Jamie Naidoo, We have the tendency to be reactive…we wait for something to happen, then suddenly we care, writes a News24 User. Read more...

2 comments 441 views
Submitted by
woadstress
Celebration

Make a list of at least ten things that you can celebrate, and write two or three reasons why you can celebrate those things or events. Read more...

1 comments 157 views
Submitted by
Eric de Castro
Last squeak of the year

 Read more...

13 comments 227 views

Jobs in Cape Town [change area]

Property [change area]

Travel - Look, Book, Go!

Kalahari.com - shop online today

2DAYS ONLY – 30% off Appliances

Coffee makers, blenders, fans, juicers and more. T&Cs apply. Shop now!

2 DAYS ONLY – 40% off books

Get 40% off when you buy 2 books. For two days only! T&Cs apply. Buy now!

Up to 50% off on outdoor gear

Save on chairs, blankets, cooler bags, umbrellas and more. Shop now!

Save on Samsung

Cameras, mobile phones, TVs, Tablets and more. While stocks last. Shop now!

Grand Theft Auto 5

Now available on PS4, Xbox One and PC from R649. Buy now!

OLX Free Classifieds [change area]

Samsung Galaxy s4

Mobile, Cell Phones in South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Town. Date October 24

Best bargain in big bay

Real Estate, Houses - Apartments for Sale in South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Town. Date October 25

VW Golf 6, 1.6 Trendline (Excellent condition)

Vehicles, Cars in South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Town. Date October 25

 

services

E-mail Alerts The latest headlines in your inbox

RSS feeds News delivered really simply.

Mobile News24 on your mobile or PDA

E-mail Newsletters You choose what you want

News24 on your iPhone Get News24 headlines on your iPhone.

SMS Alerts Get breaking news stories via SMS.

Blogs Your opinion on you, me and everyone.

Calais Website keywords automated by OpenCalais.

 
Interactive Advertising Bureau
 
© 2014 24.com. All rights reserved.
There are new stories on the homepage. Click here to see them.
 
English
Afrikaans
isiZulu

Hello 

Create Profile

Creating your profile will enable you to submit photos and stories to get published on News24.


Please provide a username for your profile page:

This username must be unique, cannot be edited and will be used in the URL to your profile page across the entire 24.com network.

Settings

Location Settings

News24 allows you to edit the display of certain components based on a location. If you wish to personalise the page based on your preferences, please select a location for each component and click "Submit" in order for the changes to take affect.








Facebook Sign-In

Hi News addict,

Join the News24 Community to be involved in breaking the news.

Log in with Facebook to comment and personalise news, weather and listings.