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Johan D Nel
 
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Life A Programmed Controlled Entity

31 December 2013, 08:51

More and more experts  are prophesying that we are on the verge of  major developments and improvements in computer generated artificial intelligence (AI).  There are predictions claiming that   the following scenarios are a future reality:
 -Artificial intelligence( AI)) that surpasses human intelligence.
 -Combining AI and human intelligence to create super humans.
  -Asimov’s   robots and the  “Skynet”program featuring in the  Terminator movies are likely future possibilities.
Suppose you are a highly effective programmer  in  LISP , Prolog or both languages  creating very advanced   AI (artificial intelligence) programs.  (You will most probably be the team leader , very doubtful that any human will be able to manage such sophistication alone) 
How will you safeguard against unwanted behavior in your creations?  Unwanted behavior in especially programs destined   to leave the protected virtual environment were they were developed.
One possibility is to develop and test the AI ‘s behavior in a virtual environment inside a computer  within preset constrains (only allowing the AI program limited controlled access to a computer’s memory or other resources) . The intelligence is only allowed access outside this constrained environment   once it has passed specially designed behavioral   tests.  The AI program  will only be allowed access or control of other devices once it passes these  tests.  This is possibly the wisest solution if the programmers are aware of the possible dangers.
The scenario just described only speculates about the (near?) future.   Let us rather move closer to the present. 
The best programmers are arguably gaming programers.(creating computer games).  Computer games evolved a remarkable distance since  first arcade games.   Many of the more recent games allow the “gamer”(player) to control and develop virtual persons or  characters . Playing characters representing the gamer ( player) and non-playing characters that  react with the playing character form  the basis of many of  these games.  The non-playing characters can get more sophisticated as the game progress and anticipate the future moves and reactions of the playing character.    Although still far from dangerous, the game characters  are achieving progressively more and more abilities as the games advance. None of these characters are aware  of the existence of   either the “ gamers” or the programmers.   The programmers and gamers however  however have a personal interest in in their creations.
If virtual highly intelligent beings develop in a protected virtual environment in computer memory, they will  most probably also start speculating about their origins. How will the wise  programmer handle and communicate with these highly intelligent AI beings in the light of preventing unwanted AI’s to escape to his world?   This is only applicable if he prepares the AI’s to be allowed to enter his , the programmer’s world.   
If such an intelligence, that developed  without any constrains, enters the programmers world, it might believe that it is superior to it’s creator and it might become the equivalent of Skynet ( the villain in the Terminator movies).
Is life a program  code controlled entity ?   
More evidence from a very interesting paper was published in the Science magazine of the 13th  of December 2013(Science 13 December 2013: Vol. 342 no. 6164 pp. 1325-1326)John Stamatoyannopoulos et al   Are there two separate codes encoded in DNA? One code coding for protein synthesis and another code coding for gene expression?  Stamatoyannopoulos and his co-workers’s research give strong support for a dual DNA code. Other recently published   research papers also point in the same direction. 1.Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generationss .Dias BG, Ressler KJ. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Dec 1. doi: 10.1038/nn.3594. Dias and Ressler discovered that fear of certain scents  are inherented  by the male offspring of male rats conditioned to fear the the specific smell. This inheretence  continued  at lease until the third generation of male offspring.  No specific DNA changes could be discoveredin the offsprings’ DNA. In addition, in vitro fertilization, F2 inheritance and cross-fostering revealed that these transgenerational effects are inherited via parental gametes.
2  Differential L1 regulation in pluripotent stem cells of humans and apes.Marchetto MC, Narvaiza I, Denli AM, Benner C, Lazzarini TA, Nathanson JL, Paquola AC, Desai KN, Herai RH, Weitzman MD, Yeo GW, Muotri AR, Gage FH. 2.Nature. 2013 Nov 28;503(7477):525-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12686. Quote “We propose that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be a unique biological resource to determine relevant phenotypical differences between human and NHPs, and that those differences could have potential adaptation and speciation value.”The differences in the morphological appearance between chimps and humans   appears to be greater than would be expected when their gnomes are compared.
Life consist of micro computers (cells). The cells are able to communicate with one another  and to form networks. (the case in  all multicellular organisms). These microcomputers and there networking abilities are controlled by programs that resides in a coded form  in the DNA molecule . It seems that there exists at least two coded messages, one to regulate protein synthesis and another that regulates when and in which microcomputers (cells)  the proteins should be produced.
Is such a sophisticated computer network possible without a programmer? Is it possible for a program running in a protected environment to detect the programmer ? Is the  programs responsible for life running in a protected environment. ?   Check dark mass and dark energy’s influence on the universe. The human robots only observe a tiny portion of the universe in which they were created. Who have believed  the message and to whom will the power of supreme programmer be revealed?








AbstractUsing olfactory molecular specificity, we examined the inheritance of parental traumatic exposure, a phenomenon that has been frequently observed, but not understood. We subjected F0 mice to odor fear conditioning before conception and found that subsequently conceived F1 and F2 generations had an increased behavioral sensitivity to the F0-conditioned odor, but not to other odors. When an odor (acetophenone) that activates a known odorant receptor (Olfr151) was used to condition F0 mice, the behavioral sensitivity of the F1 and F2 generations to acetophenone was complemented by an enhanced neuroanatomical representation of the Olfr151 pathway. Bisulfite sequencing of sperm DNA from conditioned F0 males and F1 naive offspring revealed CpG hypomethylation in the Olfr151 gene. In addition, in vitro fertilization, F2 inheritance and cross-fostering revealed that these transgenerational effects are inherited via parental gametes. Our findings provide a framework for addressing how environmental information may be inherited transgenerationally at behavioral, neuroanatomical and epigenetic levels.










AbstractUsing olfactory molecular specificity, we examined the inheritance of parental traumatic exposure, a phenomenon that has been frequently observed, but not understood. We subjected F0 mice to odor fear conditioning before conception and found that subsequently conceived F1 and F2 generations had an increased behavioral sensitivity to the F0-conditioned odor, but not to other odors. When an odor (acetophenone) that activates a known odorant receptor (Olfr151) was used to condition F0 mice, the behavioral sensitivity of the F1 and F2 generations to acetophenone was complemented by an enhanced neuroanatomical representation of the Olfr151 pathway. Bisulfite sequencing of sperm DNA from conditioned F0 males and F1 naive offspring revealed CpG hypomethylation in the Olfr151 gene. In addition, in vitro fertilization, F2 inheritance and cross-fostering revealed that these transgenerational effects are inherited via parental gametes. Our findings provide a framework for addressing how environmental information may be inherited transgenerationally at behavioral, neuroanatomical and epigenetic levels.



A short summary: Stamatoyannopoulos group are part of the ENCODE project   that explores the human genome. His group discovered a hidden DNA code indicating that DNA containts at least two codes.
 cientists have discovered a second code hiding within DNA. This second code contains information that changes how scientists read the instructions contained in DNA and interpret mutations to make sense of health and disease.
Genome scientist Dr. John Stamatoyannopoulos.Genome scientist Dr. John Stamatoyannopoulos led a team that discovered a second code hidden in DNA.A research team led by Dr. John Stamatoyannopoulos, University of Washington associate professor of genome sciences and of medicine, made the discovery.

Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generations.Dias BG, Ressler KJ.Nat Neurosci. 2013 Dec 1. doi: 10.1038/nn.3594. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 24292232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Nat Neurosci. 2013 Dec 1. doi: 10.1038/nn.3594. [Epub ahead of print]Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generations.Dias BG, Ressler KJ.Source1] Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. [2] Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.AbstractUsing olfactory molecular specificity, we examined the inheritance of parental traumatic exposure, a phenomenon that has been frequently observed, but not understood. We subjected F0 mice to odor fear conditioning before conception and found that subsequently conceived F1 and F2 generations had an increased behavioral sensitivity to the F0-conditioned odor, but not to other odors. When an odor (acetophenone) that activates a known odorant receptor (Olfr151) was used to condition F0 mice, the behavioral sensitivity of the F1 and F2 generations to acetophenone was complemented by an enhanced neuroanatomical representation of the Olfr151 pathway. Bisulfite sequencing of sperm DNA from conditioned F0 males and F1 naive offspring revealed CpG hypomethylation in the Olfr151 gene. In addition, in vitro fertilization, F2 inheritance and cross-fostering revealed that these transgenerational effects are inherited via parental gametes. Our findings provide a framework for addressing how environmental information may be inherited transgenerationally at behavioral, neuroanatomical and epigenetic levels.







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