I will open this article with a statement from cosmologist Alexander Vilenkinof from Tufts University in Boston Vilenkinof concludes. "All the evidence we have says that the universe had a beginning." January 2012.
What does the above statement mean? It means that all previous theories out there that somehow showed the universe as infinite or eternal in any state has now been proven as false. You dear reader can do some research on the topic to get a better understanding of the evidence. In Part 1 we ventured into this beginning and its possible cause. We also have learnt from the law of causality that everything that begins to exist has a cause. There were some attempts by people to refute it and efforts were commendable those supposed rebuttals however were not based on objective facts but rather on subjective feelings. The cosmological argument is a valid, logical and true statement. I want to at this point just thank ShaunStanley for pointing out an error in my reasoning as I stated some information before the fact. I thank you for that.
What do we have so far the?
The Universe had a beginning and based on our observations the universe also had a cause. This cause would have to have the following attributes to be able to cause the universe and they are.
4. Is outside time, space and matter
5. Unimaginably powerful to have created the entire universe from nothing.
So we have this created universe and it was caused by a natural process or a designer. Let us explore to what the evidence points to.
Evidence for a cause does not end with the cosmological argument. The evidence of the precision with which the universe came into being is even more persuasive evidence for a designer. This evidence is known as the Teleological Argument and it derives its name from the Greek word telos which means design.
The argument is as follows;
Every design had a designer
The universe has a highly complex design
Therefor the universe had a designer.
Here is a fact; the universe is tweaked to enable life on earth, a planet with scores of improbable and interdependent life-supporting conditions that make a very tiny oasis in a vast hostile universe. These highly precise environmental conditions are called anthropic constants, and makes up what is known as the anthropic principle. I’m not going to list every single one but I will highlight and point to 15 of them;
Anthropic Constant 1 – Oxygen Level: On earth the oxygen level is 21% and makes life possible if it was 25% fires would erupt spontaneously. If it was at 15% we would suffocate.
Anthropic Constant 2 – Atmospheric Transparency: If the atmosphere was less transparent, not enough solar radiation would reach the earth surface if it was too transparent we would be bombarded with too much solar radiation, matter of fact the atmospheric composition of precise levels of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and ozone are in themselves anthropic constants.
Anthropic Constant 3 - Moon-Earth Gravitational interaction: If the interaction were greater than it is currently tidal effects on ocean, atmosphere and rotational period would be too severe. If it was any less orbital changes would cause climatic instabilities. If it was either too weak or too strong life on earth would not be possible.
Anthropic Constant 4 – Carbon Dioxide Level: If CO2 levels were higher than now a runaway greenhouse effect would develop and we would all burn up. If it was any lower plants would not be able to maintain efficient photosynthesis and we would suffocate.
Anthropic Constant 5 - Gravity: If the gravitational force were altered by 0.00000000000000000000000000000000000001% our sun would not exist and therefor neither would we. Talk about precision!
The extent of the universe’s fine-tuning makes the anthropic principle perhaps one of the most powerful arguments for the existence of a designer. Just to reiterate the point here is ten more fine tuning facts.
1. If the centrifugal force of planetary movements did not precisely balance the gravitational forces nothing could be held in orbit around its sun.
2. If the universe had expanded at a rate one millionth more slowly than it did expansion would have stopped and the universe would have collapsed on itself before any stars had formed. If it had expanded faster than no galaxies would have formed.
3. Any of the laws of physics can be described as a function of the velocity of light this is now defined to be 299,792,458 meters per second. Even a slight variation in the speed of light would alter the other constants and preclude the possibility of life on earth.
4. If water vapour levels in the atmosphere were greater than they are now a runaway greenhouse effect would cause temperature to rise too high for human life; if they were less the earth would be too cold to support human life.
5. If Jupiter was not in its current orbit the earth would be bombarded with space material. Jupiter’s is literally the solar system’s vacuum cleaner that attracts asteroid and comets that might otherwise collide with earth.
6. If the thickness of the earth’s crust was any greater too much oxygen would be transferred to the crust to support life. If it was any thinner the tectonic and volcanic activity would make life impossible.
7. If the rotation of the earth took longer than 24 hours temperature differences would become too great between night and day if the rotation was shorter atmospheric wind velocities would be too great.
8. The 23 degree axil tilt of the earth is perfect, if it was altered even slightly temperatures on earth would be too extreme on earth.
9. If the atmospheric discharge (lightning) rate was greater there would be too much fire destruction if it was too little there would not be enough nitrogen fixing in the soil.
10. If there was more seismic activity much more life would have been lost if there was less tectonic activity, nutrients on the ocean floor and in river runoffs would not be cycled back to continents through tectonic uplift.
There are 122 anthropic constants. Cosmologist Ed Harrison used the word “proof” when he considers the implications of the anthropic principle on the question of the designer. He Writes “Here is the cosmological proof of the existence of God, the design argument of Paley updated and refurbished. The fine-tuning of the universe provides prima facie evidence of deistic design.”
The question that needs begging here is how does a natural force that has absolutely no intelligence assign these absolutes to chance? There is a virtual zero probability that chance could create any of these in the absence of intelligence. To counter this, the multiverse theory was born but as I have pointed out in my opening statement it has been dealt a deathblow by recent scientific findings.
I’m taking us back to the argument;
Every design has a designer
As verified by the by the anthropic principle we know beyond a reasonable doubt that the universe is designed.
Therefor the universe has a designer.
We have to very good arguments that point to something or someone that display the following properties:
4. Is outside time, space and matter.
5. Unimaginably powerful to have created the entire universe from nothing.
6. Supremely intelligent to have designed a universe with incredible precision.
But that is not all, I have more evidence on this designer and we will cover more in Part 3. The evidence is overwhelming. It is impossible to get to the whole argument without all the information available. I will have to cover biological design and the moral argument in the next parts. I apologise to everyone if I have not answered any specific question you might have asked. I promise that I will get to it in good time.
As always I ask that you test everything I've said never take my word for it!