Trio share chemistry Nobel Prize
Stockholm - An American and two Japanese scientists won the Nobel Prize in chemistry on Wednesday for finding new ways to bond carbon atoms together, methods now widely used to make medicines and even slimmed-down computer screens.
Richard Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki were honoured for their development four decades ago of one of the most sophisticated tools available to chemists today, called palladium-catalysed cross coupling.
It lets chemists join carbon atoms together, a key step in the process of building complex molecules.
Their methods are now used worldwide in commercial production of pharmaceuticals, including potential cancer drugs, and molecules used to make electronics, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said.
Heck, 79, is a professor emeritus at the University of Delaware, now living in the Philippines.
Negishi, 75, is a chemistry professor at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, and 80-year-old Suzuki is a retired professor from Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan.
Wants to keep working
Negishi told reporters in Stockholm by telephone from Indiana that he was excited to be awakened by a call early on Wednesday from the Nobel committee, saying he started dreaming about winning the prize "half a century ago".
"The Nobel Prize became a realistic dream of mine when I was in my 20's," he said, adding he would use his third of the 10 million kronor ($1.5m) award to continue doing research.
"I may have accomplished maybe half of my goals and I definitely would like to work for at least a couple of more years," Negishi said.
Heck said from his home in the Philippines that the importance of his work wasn't clear initially.
"It sort of grew as we worked on it," he told The Associated Press. "As I worked on it longer it appeared it was pretty important and it has developed well since then."
In a televised news conference from Hokkaido University, Suzuki said he was honoured by the prize and hoped that it would inspire Japanese youngsters to explore chemistry.
"To my disappointment, not many young people seem to be interested in science, especially chemistry," said Suzuki.
"A resource-poor country like Japan can only rely on people's endeavour and knowledge. I would like to continue my effort to provide help to younger people."
Methods used for cancer-killing substances
Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said he spoke to Suzuki on the phone and congratulated him.
"He told me that Japan's science and technology is at the world's top level and encouraged me to make good use of the resources," Kan said.
The methods developed by the three scientists have been used to artificially produce cancer-killing substances first found in marine sponges, the academy said in its citation. It's not yet clear whether they will turn out to be useful drugs.
They are also being used to create new antibiotics that work on resistant bacteria and a number of commercially available drugs, including the anti-inflammatory naproxen, prize committee member Claes Gustafsson said.
"There have been calculations that no less than 25% of all chemical reactions in the pharmaceutical industry are actually based on these methods," Gustafsson said.
Palladium-catalysed cross coupling has also been used by the electronics industry to make light-emitting diodes used in the production of extremely thin monitors, the academy said.
The approach developed by the winners is widely used in research labs and in commercial production of substances like plastics, said Joseph Francisco, president of the American Chemical Society and a colleague of Negishi's in Purdue's chemistry department.
"It's truly quite fundamental work," he said.
By using the metal palladium as a catalyst to make carbon atoms bond to each other, the approach makes those bonds happen "very easily, very cleanly", he said. It requires fewer steps than previous methods and avoids having to clean up unwanted by-products, he said.
Heck started experimenting with using palladium as a catalyst while working for an American chemical company in Delaware in the 1960's. In 1977 Negishi developed a variant of the method and two years later Suzuki developed a third.
The academy said the chemistry award had a link to the research honoured on Tuesday by the Nobel Prize in physics, awarded to Russian-born Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for experiments with graphene, the thinnest and strongest material known to mankind.
"In spring 2010, scientists announced that they had attached palladium atoms to graphene, and the resulting solid material was used to carry out the Suzuki reaction in water," the citation said.