UK experts: Too soon for brain science use

2011-12-13 11:32
London - Criminal behaviour can't be blamed on how someone's brain is wired, at least not yet, says a report from British experts who examined how neuroscience is being used in some court cases.

"Having a psychotic brain is not a general defence against a criminal charge," said Nicholas Mackintosh, emeritus professor of experimental psychology at the University of Cambridge, who led the group that produced the report. "There's no such thing as a gene for violence."

The report was done by the Royal Society, the world's oldest scientific academy. The document is part of the group's ongoing investigation of the effects of recent advances in neuroscience on various parts of society, including education and the law.

Another report early next year will look at the potential implications of neuroscience on military and security issues.

Useful for parole hearings


After examining the state of neuroscience and how it might apply to the legal system in the UK, the Royal Society concluded it's too soon for the law to be swayed by scientists' understanding of the brain.

Still, brain scans have been cited in an increasing number of cases in the US. The authors of the report said they could one day prove useful for matters like parole hearings when trying to predict whether someone will commit another crime.

The scientists said that while some criminals, such as psychopaths, have different brain structures from most people, these differences aren't enough to release them from being legally responsible for their actions.

Some experts said it was too simplistic to think brain scans could explain human actions.

"When we see a brain image, we want to assume a blob correlates to a complex behaviour," said Carl Senior, a neuroscience expert at Aston University in Birmingham and a spokesperson for the British Psychological Society. Senior was not connected with the Royal Society report.

Other factors to consider

He said many other factors like a person's upbringing and circumstances determined whether a crime was committed - and that a brain scan wouldn't be able to show that.

The report cited data gathered in the US by one expert that suggested the number of cases where neurological or behavioural genetics evidence was used in criminal cases had doubled from about 100 to roughly 200 during the years 2005 to 2009.

That information was reported by Nita Farahany, an associate professor of law at Vanderbilt University's law school.

Mackintosh said most of those cases were for defendants on death row. He said neuroscience has not yet been used in British courts and is rarely used elsewhere.

However, he cited a case in Italy, where a woman was convicted of killing her sister and burning the body, and attempting to kill her parents. Her defence team introduced genetic information showing the defendant had brain abnormalities, arguing that she was mentally ill.

In August, the court cut the woman's sentence from life in prison to 20 years.

Age of criminal responsibility

Mackintosh wouldn't comment on whether he thought that was appropriate, except to say that genetic data and brain scans should only be used in exceptional cases.

He also suggested neuroscience might be helpful in determining things like the age of criminal responsibility, which in England is age 10.

"The science says a 10-year-old brain is still immature and developing," he said, adding that the brain generally isn't fully developed until age 20.

There has long been a debate in the UK about the age of criminal responsibility, provoked in part by the 1993 killing of Liverpool toddler James Bulger by Jon Venables and Robert Thompson, both 10.

In 2001, both were released and given new identities, but Venables was later sent back to a prison hospital.

Senior acknowledged it was tempting to look to neuroscience as a possible explanation of criminal activity but that to do so would be a mistake.

"We just know far too little about brain imaging to draw any conclusions right now," he said. "But let's revisit the situation in a couple of decades and see where the evidence stands."
Read more on:    research

Join the conversation!

24.com encourages commentary submitted via MyNews24. Contributions of 200 words or more will be considered for publication.

We reserve editorial discretion to decide what will be published.
Read our comments policy for guidelines on contributions.
NEXT ON NEWS24X

linking and moving

2015-04-22 07:36

24.com publishes all comments posted on articles provided that they adhere to our Comments Policy. Should you wish to report a comment for editorial review, please do so by clicking the 'Report Comment' button to the right of each comment.

Comment on this story
8 comments
Comments have been closed for this article.

Inside News24

 
/News

Book flights

Compare, Book, Fly

Traffic Alerts
Traffic
There are new stories on the homepage. Click here to see them.
 
English
Afrikaans
isiZulu

Hello 

Create Profile

Creating your profile will enable you to submit photos and stories to get published on News24.


Please provide a username for your profile page:

This username must be unique, cannot be edited and will be used in the URL to your profile page across the entire 24.com network.

Settings

Location Settings

News24 allows you to edit the display of certain components based on a location. If you wish to personalise the page based on your preferences, please select a location for each component and click "Submit" in order for the changes to take affect.




Facebook Sign-In

Hi News addict,

Join the News24 Community to be involved in breaking the news.

Log in with Facebook to comment and personalise news, weather and listings.