Nasa telescope to probe solar mystery

2013-06-27 19:26
This artist's rendering shows the Kepler space telescope which has lost the second of four wheels that control the telescope's orientation. (Nasa, AP)

This artist's rendering shows the Kepler space telescope which has lost the second of four wheels that control the telescope's orientation. (Nasa, AP)

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Cape Canaveral - A small Nasa telescope was poised for launch on Thursday on a mission to determine how the sun heats its atmosphere to millions of degrees, sending off rivers of particles that define the boundaries of the solar system.

The study is far from academic. Solar activity directly impacts Earth's climate and the space environment beyond the planet's atmosphere. Solar storms can knock out power grids, disrupt radio signals and interfere with communications, navigation and other satellites in orbit.

"We live in a very complex society and the sun has a role to play in it," said physicist Alan Title, with Lockheed Martin Space Systems Advanced Technology Centre in Palo Alto, California, which designed and built the telescope.

Scientists have been trying to unravel the mechanisms that drive the sun for decades but one fundamental mystery endures: How it manages to release energy from its relatively cool, 5 500°C surface into an atmosphere that can reach up to 2.8 million°C.

At its core, the sun is essentially a giant fusion engine that melds hydrogen atoms into helium. As expected, temperatures cool as energy travels outward through the layers. But then in the lower atmosphere, known as the chromosphere, temperatures heat up again.

Pictures and data relayed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, or IRIS, telescope may finally provide some answers about how that happens.

The 1.2m long, 204kg observatory will be observing the sun from a vantage point about 643km above Earth. It is designed to capture detailed images of light moving from the sun's surface, known as the photosphere, into the chromosphere. Temperatures peak in the sun's outer atmosphere, the corona.

All that energy fuels a continuous release of charged particles from the sun into what is known as the solar wind, a pressure bubble that fills and defines the boundaries of the solar system.

"Every time we look at the sun in more detail, it opens up a new window for us," said Jeffrey Newmark, IRIS program scientist at NASA headquarters in Washington, DC.

The telescope is scheduled to be launched aboard an Orbital Sciences Corp Pegasus rocket on Friday at 22:27. Pegasus is an air-launched system that is carried aloft by a modified L-1011 aircraft that will take off from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California about 55 minutes before the scheduled launch.

The rocket is released from the belly of the plane at an altitude of about 11 900m so it can ignite and carry the telescope into orbit.

IRIS, which cost about $145m including the launch service, is designed to last for two years.

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