The human face of 9/11
Gander - To hear something nice about 9/11, talk to "the plane people", the passengers who wound up on the island of Newfoundland that day because US airspace had been shut down.
Talk to Laura Louie about the overwhelming kindness she and her two small daughters experienced in this distant corner of Canada, briefly transformed by a twist of history into an international aviation hub.
"We were taken care of," she remembers.
"For everyone else, 9/11 has a heavy connotation, but for me it was when I was reminded what humanity is."
Or listen to Monica Burke, a 44-year-old emergency dispatcher from Seattle: "Our whole world was in chaos and we didn't even know where we were except that we were in some weird time zone in Canada.
"I didn't know when I was getting home, but these people basically put their lives on hold. Their kids couldn't go to school because we were using the schools as shelters.
"Bus drivers came off strike to drive us. Pharmacists came to the shelters and said 'What do you need?' and nobody asked for money. It's pretty incredible that they were able to respond like that, especially with short notice."
Ten years later, that huge, comforting hug of Gander, Newfoundland still warms the memories of the 6 600 passengers who descended without warning on the town of 10 000.
Many of them have made deep friendships with the islanders who cared for them and some will travel here for the 10th anniversary commemorations.
Across a distance of 5 000km from the Pacific to Atlantic, Monica Burke has stayed in regular phone and e-mail contact with Beulah Cooper, the woman who opened her home to her as the horror of 9/11 sank in. She visited her on the first anniversary and is returning for the 10th.
Cooper, now 70, keeps a large collection of thank you letters from the many people she helped in different ways.
Among those she comforted are Dennis and Hannah O'Rourke, an elderly couple whose New York firefighter son, Kevin, who went missing at the World Trade Centre and died in the rubble.
The O'Rourkes have remained friends with Cooper and have been back to Gander, whose people Hannah O'Rourke feels eternally indebted to.
"They are so full of love and kindness and they can't do enough for you.
"I'll never forget it. Beulah was a mother figure."
Of the hundreds of flights blocked that day, more than 200 were diverted to Canada, with no warning, recalls David Collenette, transport minister.
Pick up pieces
"They shut down US airspace, period, and we had to pick up the pieces.
"I don't fault them for that...it was an absolute tragedy," said Collenette.
"There was no request.
"We were informed that the United States had closed its airspace to all incoming traffic.
"All planes were grounded in the United States and they said that any planes flying into the US airspace would be shot down.
"Frankly it was as brutal as that."
He said that despite intelligence reports about more airborne terrorists possibly approaching, he had to let the aircraft in, or else they might attempt unauthorised landings or crash into the Atlantic.
"As it was, we landed 33 000 people in a matter of a few hours."
Norman Mineta, then US transportation secretary, had a different recollection of the day.
"After I closed US airspace I realised that we've got these planes coming in from Europe and Asia and I then called David and I said 'Hey David, we need your help,'" Mineta said, asking Collenete if Canada could take the incoming planes.
'We'll take them all'
"He put me on hold and within a minute or so he said, 'We'll take them all,'" Mineta said.
Mineta said he was surprised that Collenette didn't mention their conversation, but added that Canada "did a great service" for the US that day.
The Canadians shunted the traffic away from Toronto and Montreal to the eastern seaboard, and obscure, little used Gander got to relive its glory days as a stopover point for trans-Atlantic aviation before long-distance flights became possible.
Built in 1938 in anticipation of the coming world war, it had the world's longest runway, and on 9/11 it was the second busiest, taking in 38 flights to Halifax, Nova Scotia's 47.
Flight crews quickly filled Gander's hotels, so passengers were taken to schools, fire stations, church halls and the Canadian military flew in 5 000 cots.
Stores donated blankets, coffee machines and grills. Unable to retrieve their luggage, passengers became dependent on the kindness of strangers and it came in the shape of clothes, showers, toys, banks of phones to call home free of charge and a giant walk-in fridge full of donated food.
Once all the planes had landed or turned back to Europe, Gander's air traffic controllers switched to cooking meals in the building nonstop for three days.
A piece of a steel beam from the former World Trade Centre, donated by the Bethpage volunteer fire department on Long Island, will be unveiled in Gander on September 11.