Volcano threatens summer of ash
Dublin - It's been a month now, and Iceland's volcano shows no sign it will stop belching ash across Europe any time soon. The rolling eruptions threaten more havoc for summer vacation plans and higher costs for struggling airlines.
Although the global disruption of last month's massive eruption has faded, smaller ash plumes snarled air services intermittently over the last week all the way to Turkey - more than 4 100km from the Eyjafjallajokul volcano.
Air-control authorities and geologists agree that the continent must be braced indefinitely for rapid shut downs of air services as computerised projections try to pinpoint where the ash clouds will float next at the whim of shifting winds.
"We do not pretend to be psychics," said Einar Kjartansson, a geophysicist at the Icelandic Meteorological Office, who often has been asked to guess the volcano's next move since it began spitting lava and ash March 20.
Huge volumes of ash, which can clog jet engines, forced most of northern Europe to shut its air services April 15-20, grounding an estimated 10 million travellers worldwide.
Since then the ash plume has thinned and spread out, shifting shape by the hour, rising into North Atlantic air routes and imposing awkward detours on hundreds of trans-Atlantic flights daily.
No insurance for ash
Some insurers are offering travel coverage for flights delayed because of volcanic ash, though in many cases reimbursement would not be large enough to cover major expenses such as hotel charges.
One major British insurer, Direct Line, announced on April 20 that it would not cover ash disruption in future policies because travellers "are buying cover in the knowledge that there is a problem."
Many individual travellers, however, appear to be taking the continuing ash threat in stride.
Silvia Bucci, a 38-year-old bank employee in Rome, said the ash wouldn't easily deter her from flying.
"I am a very flexible person. I would be easily open to changing my destination if I knew that the cloud was heading toward my destination," said Bucci, rushing through central Rome with bags full of shopping.
"I would say it is a relative problem, and in any case I never book my vacations much in advance.
In prosperous Norway, one of the countries most in the volcano's firing line, travel industry officials say nothing will deter most of the nation's 4.9 million people from booking flights to the Mediterranean this summer.
Despite the volcano, British tour operator Thomas Cook said on Thursday that summer bookings had risen five percent in the last four weeks and were ahead of planned capacity.
Costs add up quickly
"We are pleased with the development of our summer bookings programme, particularly given the disruption caused by the volcanic ash cloud," said Chief Executive Manny Fontenla-Novoa.
For airlines, the costs associated with an ash cloud can add up quickly. Consider that two hours of jet fuel to divert to another airport can cost $5 000 to $10 000 depending on the size of aircraft involved.
This weekend, Lufthansa couldn't land in Munich so diverted planes to other German airports and bussed passengers the rest of the way.
Lufthansa spokesperson Thomas Jachnow said the airline hadn't calculated yet how much extra costs it was suffering because of the sporadic diversions and grounding of aircraft over the past week.
Dozens of European airlines have suffered similar extra costs and are already lobbying their national governments to help foot the bill, which includes paying the hotel and food bills of stranded customers.
Jose Luis Barrera, deputy president of Spain's College of Geologists, said Europe should get ready for ash-covered inconvenience at least through the summer - and perhaps longer.
He noted that the volcano's last eruption ran from 1821 to 1823.
"We're going to have to learn to live with the volcano," Barrera said. "Just as in California, people learn to live with the earthquake that may be waiting for them... This is the same. Preventive measures will have to be taken for if and when the mass of ash gets worse."
Irish tourism centres dependent on Europeans and Americans arriving by air say their summer will be bleak if the volcano doesn't stop.
Ireland's government has called in tourism industry officials emphasising they must woo more Irish to compensate for the missing foreigners.
"Pre-volcano we were having a great year. Then all hell broke loose, thanks to your man (the volcano)," said Debbie Walsh, manager of a heritage museum in the County Cork port of Cobh.
She said this summer, the key to financial survival would be the approximately 50 cruise liners expected to disgorge tourists in Cobh. "We're lucky in that we can fall back on the cruise liners. Nothing is going to stop them from coming in."
Lufthansa, one of Europe's most financially secure airlines, said its bookings are on target with what they would expect this time of year. But analysts warned that most carriers are on shakier financial ground, depend on summer holidaymakers for the bulk of their profits - and are particularly vulnerable to a drop-off in bookings now.
"That is why all airlines are monitoring closely what affect it (the ash worries) will have on their bookings," said John Strickland, director of JLS Consulting, a London-based aviation consultancy firm.
Airlines in fact are trying to get some relief from the European Union for the hotel costs they absorbed during the Europe-wide shut down.
Airline, business and tourism leaders also increasingly have questioned Europe's competence to measure the true threat.
Criticism has been sharpest in Ireland and Britain, Iceland's southeast neighbours and fellow islands heavily dependent on air links for their economic health.
Ireland's two major airlines, Aer Lingus and Ryanair, this week accused the existing authorities - the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre in England and the Eurocontrol air safety agency in Brussels - of not knowing enough about the ash to make informed decisions to shut down air services.
Both airlines appealed for the European Union to source and fund new measures based on American practice before the summer high season for travel arrives. They complained that Europe had been too slow to adopt measures long observed by the US Federal Aviation Administration.
Aer Lingus chief executive Christoph Mueller said Europe's Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre "has been proven inaccurate several times and we have lost confidence in its reliability."
He proposed that specialised aircraft should be deployed around the Atlantic to identify ash clouds and measure their density, something the current early-warning systems usually fail to do.