The world’s closest shave with nuclear war occurred in 1990 during one of India and Pakistan’s periodic confrontations over Kashmir. While India is a true democracy, Pakistan has struggled to fulfil the vision of its founder, M. A. Jinnah: a state for Muslims, rather than a Muslim state. Indeed, Tariq Ali, a prominent Pakistani intellectual, has asked whether the country can survive. Some observers have described Musharraf as the Ataturk of Pakistan who has used his authority to modernise. But overconfidence hastened Musharraf’s downfall when he took on the judiciary and dismissed some of its key figures. Power now reverts to politicians with a reputation for corruption rather than service delivery in a country of weak state institutions.