Factbox: What was agreed at Lima climate talks

2014-12-15 10:25
Country representatives clap at the closure and approval of the proposed compromise document at the climate change conferences in Lima, Peru. (Cris Bouroncle, AFP)

Country representatives clap at the closure and approval of the proposed compromise document at the climate change conferences in Lima, Peru. (Cris Bouroncle, AFP)

Multimedia   ·   User Galleries   ·   News in Pictures Send us your pictures  ·  Send us your stories

Lima - UN climate negotiations wrapped up in Lima with a modest agreement about the building blocks of a deal due to be agreed in Paris next year.

Following are details of the agreements:

Greenhouse gas plans

All nations will be asked to submit plans for curbing greenhouse gas emissions, known as "Intended Nationally Determined Contributions", or INDCs, to the UN by an informal deadline of 31 March 2015, as the core of a Paris deal.

But there will be few obligations to provide details and no review to compare each nation's pledges - as had been demanded by the European Union - after China and other emerging nations refused.

The text says INDCs "may include" details such as base years and yearly targets, far weaker than a former draft that said nations "shall provide" such details.

INDCs will be published on the website of the UN Climate Change Secretariat, which will prepare by 1 November 2015, a report of the overall climate effect of all the INDCs in slowing warming.

Who does what?

The text invites actions by all nations to combat warming, blurring a distinction in a 1992 climate convention that split the world into two camps of rich and poor - under which the rich had to lead the way.

Many emerging economies, such as India, insisted on that continued split. But the United States and other rich nations said the world had changed and that developing countries also had to curb their rising emissions.

The diplomatic formula encompassing the rival demands ended up in the text as: "common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances."


Donations to a Green Climate Fund, due to help developing nations cut their greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change, fractionally surpassed a UN goal of $10bn, helped by donations by Australia and Belgium.

Lima reiterated a goal for developed nations to mobilize $100bn a year, in public and private funds, in climate aid for developing nations by 2020.

Developing nations wanted rich nations to set a clear timetable for scaling up funds year by year. But a text merely "requested" that developed nations "enhance the available quantitative and qualitative elements of a pathway" toward 2020.

‘Elements’ of a long-term deal

The talks agreed on a 37-page document of "elements" that will form the basis of a negotiating text for Paris next year. But the range of options is very wide.

One option, for instance, is to set a long-term goal of a cut in greenhouse gas emissions to "net zero by 2050", requiring a drastic shift from fossil fuels in coming years. Another long-term option for the same section would merely require "low-emission development strategies."

Many developing nations want help to adapt to climate change, for instance helping farmers to grow drought or flood-resistant food. One option, for instance, says: "Establish a global goal for adaptation" - another the opposite: "No global goal for adaptation".

Loss and damage

Developing countries vulnerable to extreme weather successfully won a mention of "loss and damage" - for instance, compensation for super typhoons - in the text, although the US had pushed not to include it.

Read more on:    un  |  peru  |  environment  |  climate change

Join the conversation!

24.com encourages commentary submitted via MyNews24. Contributions of 200 words or more will be considered for publication.

We reserve editorial discretion to decide what will be published.
Read our comments policy for guidelines on contributions.

24.com publishes all comments posted on articles provided that they adhere to our Comments Policy. Should you wish to report a comment for editorial review, please do so by clicking the 'Report Comment' button to the right of each comment.

Comment on this story
Comments have been closed for this article.

Inside News24

Traffic Alerts
There are new stories on the homepage. Click here to see them.


Create Profile

Creating your profile will enable you to submit photos and stories to get published on News24.

Please provide a username for your profile page:

This username must be unique, cannot be edited and will be used in the URL to your profile page across the entire 24.com network.


Location Settings

News24 allows you to edit the display of certain components based on a location. If you wish to personalise the page based on your preferences, please select a location for each component and click "Submit" in order for the changes to take affect.

Facebook Sign-In

Hi News addict,

Join the News24 Community to be involved in breaking the news.

Log in with Facebook to comment and personalise news, weather and listings.