THE causes of pain and loss of function are essentially either pathological or non-pathological. Pathological causes are serious and require proper medical or surgical management. Examples include cancer, infections, eg. TB, myocardial infarction (heart attack) and kidney disease. Non-pathological causes include the degeneration of joints (osteoarthritis or spondylosis), overuse syndromes (muscle and ligament pain), repetitive microtrauma (tears in muscles and ligaments over a period of time), sports injuries (e.g. ankle sprains) and myofascial trigger points (painful knots in the muscles). These conditions normally respond well to a combination of a short period of rest, conservative treatment (e.g. chiropractic) and sometimes pain medication. Conservative treatment may include spinal or other joint manipulation, physical therapy modalities (eg, therapeutic ultrasound), exercise, strapping, dry needling of trigger points and dietary and ergonomic advice.For relief from these painful conditions, contact chiropractor Dr J. Shaik at 032 541 6028 or 078 655 6299 to make an appointment.