The Covid-19 pandemic has created profound disruptions in our economy and society. Due to the challenges of this pandemic, most universities have decided to move from face-to-face classes to online teaching – more accurately defined as emergency remote teaching and learning.By doing this, we aim to complete the 2020 academic year while preventing the spread of the virus.Online learning is the result of careful instructional design and planning, and makes use of a systematic model for design and development. With remote emergency teaching and learning, this careful design process is absent. Careful planning for online learning includes not only identifying the content to be covered, but also determining how to support the type of interactions that are important to the learning process. Planning, preparation and development time for an online university course typically takes six to nine months before the course is delivered.Emergency teaching and learning is a temporary shift of instructional delivery to an alternative delivery mode due to crisis conditions. What is crucial is the quality of the mode of delivery. Although assessment methodologies will differ between face-to-face teaching and remote teaching and learning, the quality of the learning outcomes should be comparable.The financial model used in a South African (residential) university consists of three main income sources: the state or government through a subsidy (the so-called “block grant”), tuition fees and third-stream income (which is mainly a cost-recovery component from contract research, donations and interest on university investments). The National Student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS) contributes to the tuition fees through a Department of Higher Education, Science and Innovation Bursary Scheme, providing fully subsidised free higher education and training for poor and working-class South Africans. Recipients will typically be students from households with a combined income of less than R350 000 per annum. The negative impact of Covid-19 on the income drivers of the university can, and probably will, be severe. Although the subsidy from the state or government can be “protected” for a cycle of two to three years through the National Treasury, the pressure on income derived from tuition fees will be increasing, as households would have been affected by the nationwide lockdown – with the economy in deep recession, a significant number of jobs would have been lost. The multiplier effect of this would be that the value of investments and endowments will decrease (at the time of writing the JSE was still 20% down compared to the previous year), and philanthropic organisations and foundations will most probably reduce or even terminate “givings” to universities.Industry, private sector and commerce will reassess their funding to universities, whether for research or bursary support. Overall, it is possible that the income sources for universities can be affected negatively in the short term, but it will definitely have long-term implications on the financial sustainability of universities. In this regard, it would be important for universities to perform scenario planning on the long-term impact of Covid-19 on the financial position of the university, and to adjust their strategic plans accordingly.The major expense item in the university budget is the salaries of staff – this item is a fixed expense, particularly in the short to medium term. When introducing emergency remote teaching and learning, hence the switch to a different pedagogy and approach, university management did not have sufficient time to restructure the fixed cost part of the budget. Other items in the budget, however, can certainly be reduced, reallocated or removed. Therefore universities should, as a preliminary measure and based on their current financial position, develop a revised or adjusted 2020 budget. Emergency remote teaching and learning therefore becomes an additional cost. These costs include, amongst others:training, development, and assistance to academic staff in converting content to a digital platform and learning management system;) procurement of data for staff (those who need to interface with the students) working from home;) expansion of a call centre to guide and assist students;) the cost of data for students through the reverse billing of data;) procurement of digital devices (entry-level laptops) for students lacking such devices;) payment for increased access to e-textbooks provided by publishers;) payment for copyright clearance of additional material pro- vided online to students;) reintegration costs of students in terms of social distancing; and) improved hygiene on campus, disinfection of residences and other venues on campus, 360 degree screening (and testing) for the virus, the establishment of quarantine facilities, and the provision of appropriate personal protective equipment. Obviously, these costs need to be offset against the fact that residences were not used for some time, with a subsequent decrease in water and electricity usage and savings on catering in the residences. It should, however, be argued that even if the students were absent from campus and the residences for some time, the salaries of all staff involved with particular functions in relation to residential students, as well as certain fixed and non-controllable costs, still need to be paid. When the offset has been assessed, the residual value is still a substantial cost to the university due to the implementation of emergency remote teaching and learning.The question is: who will fund this cost?The instinctive answer would be: the university.I would argue that this cost should be borne by the university, the student, and the state (government). This is a crisis – a global crisis of unprecedented proportions. In this moment of restrictions on movement, telecommuting and social dis- tancing, working together is essential to overcome this crisis. Student agency is key, in that they would exhibit the will to positively influence their lives and the environment around them. This is what social justice and fairness are – contributing to the development path of the country.Although it would be fair to assume that a rebate or prorated amount on the residence fees for students should be considered, it would not be an acceptable rationale to apply a rebate on tuition fees, as the 2020 academic programme will be delivered, albeit through a different mode, but ensuring the relevant and appropriate qualit. Furthermore, as indicated earlier, the higher education system will be impacted negatively – at least financially – in the short and medium term, and no country can afford a weak, non-functioning higher education system. Therefore a fiscal stimulus package from the state (government) would be crucial to assist the sector during the Covid-19 pandemic and beyond. South Africa has a highly differentiated higher education system, which is one of the legacies of our past history, and historically disadvantaged institutions will be affected the most during this pandemic.Covid-19 presents unique challenges to universities globally, but it also provides us with an opportunity to be innovative, improve social solidarity and co-create new ways of engagements among stakeholders for the greater good of society. However, without a fiscal stimulus package from government, this pandemic can render our “differentiated” higher education system a massive blow, which will be difficult to recover from.