FIFA did not identify the player, who was suspended on Monday from all football for 30 days.
The player failed a test after Zimbabwe's 4-2 loss to Egypt at Harare in June 9.
Zimbabwe are winless from their five Group G matches and cannot reach the last round of continental qualifying.
FIFA said the player and the Zimbabwean Football Association have until September 16 to submit statements and evidence in the disciplinary case.
It's the fourth doping case FIFA is currently prosecuting.
A Tahiti player tested positive at the Confederations Cup in June, and a Jamaican and a Moroccan player failed tests at World Cup qualifiers in June.