WEF 2016: 4th Industrial Revolution. 5mjobs, women in the firing line.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution is expected to take centre stage at the World Economic Forum to be held in Davos this week. The problem with revolutions, there’s always going to be winners and losers. And while the projections are exciting the WEF reports aims to guide business and policy makers in navigating this new path. As the labour market is transformed, a net loss of over 5 million jobs over 15 major economies is expected. In the Jobs report, another expected loser is women, as demographic and socio-economic change is expected to have a disproportionately negative impact on women than men. – Stuart Lowman

From the World Economic Forum

Geneva, Switzerland, 18 January 2016The Fourth Industrial Revolution, which includes developments in previously disjointed fields such as artificial intelligence and machine-learning, robotics, nanotechnology, 3-D printing, and genetics and biotechnology, will cause widespread disruption not only to business models but also to labour markets over the next five years, with enormous change predicted in the skill sets needed to thrive in the new landscape. This is the finding of a new report, The Future of Jobs, published today by the World Economic Forum.

The report is based on a survey of chief human resources officers and top strategy executives from companies across nine broad industry categories and covering 15 of the world’s largest economies. These are; Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States, plus the ASEAN and GCC groups. Together, these economies account for 65% of the global workforce. A major goal of the report is to analyse the impact of key drivers of change and provide specific information on the relative magnitude of these expected changes by industry and geography, and the expected time horizon for their impact to be felt on job functions, employment levels and skills.

In terms of overall impact, the report indicates that the nature of change over the next five years is such that as many as 7.1 million jobs could be lost through redundancy, automation or disintermediation, with the greatest losses in white-collar office and administrative roles. This loss is predicted to be partially offset by the creation of 2.1 million new jobs, mainly in more specialized “job families”, such as Computer and Mathematical or Architecture and Engineering.

These predictions are likely to be relatively conservative and leave no room for complacency. Yet the impact of disruption will vary considerably across industry and gender as well as job type. For example, Healthcare is expected to experience the greatest negative impact in terms of jobs in the next five years, followed jointly by Energy and Financial Services and Investors. The industry that stands to create the most jobs, perhaps less surprisingly, is Information and Communication Technology, followed by Professional Services and Media, Entertainment and Information professionals.

“Without urgent and targeted action today to manage the near-term transition and build a workforce with future proof skills, governments will have to cope with ever-growing unemployment and inequality, and businesses with a shrinking consumer base,” said Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum

There is also a gender implication to the future of jobs. Based on the absolute job gains and losses mentioned above, the burden of job losses seems to fall equally on women (48%) and men (52%).

However, given that men represent a larger share of the overall job market than women, this even spread translates into a widening of the employment gender gap, with women losing five jobs for every job gained compared with men losing three jobs for every job gained. This is also partly explained by low participation by women in the “job families” that are expected to grow, such as Computers and Mathematics, thus adding to the urgency with which leaders must address the chronic problem of getting more women into STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) professions.

When it comes to respondents’ outlook on how best to deal with these sweeping changes, the news is more encouraging. The most popular workforce strategy across every industry is investing in reskilling current employees.

Other practices, such as supporting mobility and job rotation, attracting female and foreign talent and offering apprenticeships, also scored high. Hiring more short-term or virtual workers are much less popular responses. Indeed, the survey suggests that those companies that are treating future workforce planning as a priority are almost 50% more likely to invest in reskilling than those that do not. The report also indicates that those companies that report satisfaction in their future workforce strategy are more than twice as likely to be targeting female talent, and significantly less likely to be planning on hiring more short-term workers.

Drivers of Change

The most significant driver of change – across all industries – is the changing nature of work itself. As new technologies make “anytime, anywhere” work possible, companies are breaking up tasks in new ways, leading to a fragmentation of jobs across many industries. These effects are further compounded by the rise of mobile internet and cloud technology, enabling the rapid spread of internet-based service models. However, while the new “gig economy” may be one of the most visible and current manifestations of disruptions to the labour market, there is more change –both positive and negative – expected in specific industries, leading to new management and regulatory challenges.


Further unpacking the bundle of technological drivers of change in the Fourth Industrial Revolution yields a rather more optimistic picture on the job creation potential of technologies such as big data analytics, mobile internet, the internet of things and robotics. However, by far the biggest expected drivers of employment creation are demographic and socio-economic in nature; in particular, the opportunities offered by young demographics and rising middle classes in emerging markets and the rising economic power and aspirations of women. Conversely, the survey respondents predict that increasing geopolitical volatility risks are the biggest threat – by far – to employment and job creation globally.

Regional Analysis

At country level, expectations of the nature of upcoming disruptions are shaped by the demographic, economic and technological development of the country in question. Overall, changing and flexible work is seen as the most significant driver of change in advanced economies, whereas the rising middle class takes this role in emerging markets. New energy supplies and technologies are expected to play the largest role in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, while climate change adaptation is seen as a particularly major driver in Germany. A number of developing countries expect particularly large impact from the mobile internet given that the technology has the potential to bring millions of formerly unconnected workers and consumers into the formal economy for the first time.

Skills instability – the rapid change in the skills requirements of all existing jobs – will also impact countries differently. While ASEAN, GCC and Japan will have only 25% instability in the top skills mix overall, in Turkey, China, India and Italy over 40% of the top skills required across all jobs will change in the next five years. In the United Kingdom, 28% of the top skills mix is expected to change by 2020 while in the United States this number is expected to be 29%. In France (28%) and Germany (39%) the situation is even more challenging.

Employment outlook is net positive in only five of the 15 countries covered, but even in those countries there is significant job churn – with some functions becoming redundant as new ones emerge. Using the forecasts from chief human resource officers and current employment data, the highest ratios of jobs created per job lost is expected to be in ASEAN (3.72 jobs gained per job lost), Mexico (3.06), United Kingdom (2.91), United States (1.37) and Turkey (1.14). In all other countries covered by the Future of Jobs report, there is an expected net loss in jobs.

Industry and Occupation Analysis

Drivers of change will also have a very disparate impact within specific industries. For example, new energy supplies and technologies will have a particular impact on Energy, Basic and Infrastructure, and Mobility.

Processing power and big data will have an especially strong impact on Information and Communication Technology, Financial Services and Professional Services. The rising middle class in emerging markets will have the largest effect on Consumer, Financial Services and Mobility. Consumer ethics and privacy issues will have a significant impact on the Consumer, Financial Services and Information and Communication Technology sectors.

The business model changes created by these drivers will, in turn, have specific and different consequences for employment and skills needs in each industry. While there is a modestly positive outlook for employment across most sectors over the 2015-2020 period, underneath this aggregate outlook there is significant relative growth in some job families and significant relative decline in others.

Skills instability is expected to impact all industries but is particularly pronounced in Financial Services where 43% of the top skills needed in all job families across the industry are expected to change by 2020. The next most affected industries are Basics and Infrastructure (42%) and Mobility (39%). The least affected by 2020 are Media, Entertainment and Information (27%) – unsurprisingly, as the industry is already in the midst of a major skills displacement – and Consumer industry (30%).

The survey respondents expect strong employment growth across the Architecture and Engineering and Computer and Mathematical job families, a moderate decline in Manufacturing and Production roles and a significant decline in office and administrative roles. Other sizeable job families, such as Business and Financial Operations, Sales and Related and Construction and Extraction have a largely flat global employment outlook over the 2015-2020 period. However, across all job families, chief human resource officers expect major challenges in recruiting.

Our research also explicitly asked respondents about new and emerging job categories and functions that they expect to become critically important to their industry by the year 2020, and where within their global operations they would expect to locate such roles. Two job types stand out due to the frequency and consistency with which they were mentioned across practically all industries and geographies. The first are data analysts, which companies expect will help them make sense of the torrent of data generated by the technological disruptions referenced above. The second are specialized sales representatives, as practically every industry will need to become skilled in commercializing and explaining their offerings to clients. Other new specialties frequently mentioned include new types of human resources and organizational development specialists, engineering specialties such as materials, biochemicals, nanotech and robotics, regulatory and government relations specialists, geospatial information systems experts, and commercial and industrial designers.

The Case for Cooperation

While forecasts vary by industry and region, momentous change is under way and, ultimately, it is our actions today that will determine whether that change mainly results in massive displacement of workers or the emergence of new opportunities.

One of the major barriers to change identified by chief human resource officers is the lack of specificity on the types of disruptive change under way. Our dataset aims to bring specificity to the debate and to the options for action by providing the perspective of chief human resources officers of leading employers who are among those at the frontline of the emerging trends and are key actors in implementing future workforce strategies. “Our analysis reveals that upcoming disruptions to the employment landscape will be about much more than simply automation. It is essential that we act collectively now to prepare ourselves for the changes that we know the Fourth Industrial Revolution will bring,” said Saadia Zahidi, Head of the Global Challenge on Employment, Skills and Human Capital at the World Economic Forum.


In part, this will entail business taking more responsibility for upskilling, reskilling and collaborating rather than competing on talent. In addition, it is imperative that governments put in place rapid and fundamental change in education systems to prepare for the new labour market. The World Economic Forum’s Global Challenge Initiative on Employment, Skills and Human Capital (see below) brings together businesses and governments to collaborate on making these solutions a reality.

Methodology

The Future of Jobs Survey that formed the basis of the report covers over 350 of the largest companies in the world, including over 150 of the Fortune Global 500. In addition to the individual company responses. we had over 1,300 detailed occupation-level data points on mass employment, specialist and newly emerging occupations based in specific geographic locations across these companies’ global operations. The survey respondents primarily included chief human resource officers, chief strategy officers and other senior talent and strategy executives. The target pool of respondents comprised, as the primary selection criterion, the 100 largest global employers in each of our target industry sectors. In addition to the aggregate analysis, the report contains 15 country or regional profiles and nine industry profiles providing detailed information for each on the current situation and the 2020 outlook.

Global Challenge on Employment, Skills and Human Capital

The World Economic Forum’s Global Challenge Initiative on Employment, Skills and Human Capital produces analytical tools such as the Human Capital Report, the Disrupting Unemployment compendium and the Future of Jobs report to allow companies and countries to benchmark their current performance, assess their prospects and learn from best practices. In addition, the Challenge Initiative serves as a platform for public-private partnerships to address skills gaps and prepare for the future of jobs in selected regions and countries. It cooperates with industries to analyse employment and skills needs and implement solutions, working closely with global multistakeholder communities of leaders and experts dedicated to boosting employment, closing skills gaps and improving education.

Partners of the Global Challenge on Employment, Skills and Human Capital are: Adecco Group, African Rainbow Minerals, Alghanim Industries, AlixPartners, The Bahrain Economic Development Board, Chobani, The Coca-Cola Company, Edelman, GEMS Education, Infosys, LinkedIn, ManpowerGroup, Mercer, Microsoft Corporation, Pearson, The Rockefeller Foundation, SAP, Saudi Aramco, Siemens, Tata Consultancy Services, Tupperware Brands Corporation, Uber, Workday, WPP and Zain.

Over 2,500 leaders from business, government, international organizations, civil society, academia, media and the arts will participate in the 46th World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland, on 20-23 January. Under the theme, Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the programme comprises over 250 sessions, of which over 100 will be webcast live.

Taking a formative role in shaping the discussion at the Annual Meeting 2016 as the Co-Chairs are: Mary Barra, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, General Motors, USA; Sharan Burrow, General Secretary, International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), Brussels; Satya Nadella, Chief Executive Officer, Microsoft Corporation, USA; Hiroaki Nakanishi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hitachi, Japan; Tidjane Thiam, Chief Executive Officer, Credit Suisse, Switzerland; and Amira Yahyaoui, Founder and Chair, Al Bawsala, Tunisia.

Women in the Firing Line of Fourth Industrial Revolution

Davos-Klosters, Switzerland, 18 January 2016 – The Fourth Industrial Revolution will have a disproportionately negative impact on the economic prospects of women, although the emphasis on talent brought about by sweeping changes caused by disruptions to the labour force will result in more women progressing into senior positions, a new study by the World Economic Forum has found.

According to The Industry Gender Gap Report, published today, the burden of job losses that will result from automation and disintermediation as a result of the Fourth Industrial Revolution will impact women and men relatively equally, with 52% of the 5.1 million net job losses expected globally between now and 2020 affecting men, compared with 48% affecting women. However, the fact that women make up a smaller share of the workforce means that today’s economic gender gap may widen even further than the current 40%.


This blow to gender equality can be explained by the fact that some of the roles most at risk from automation and disintermediation are those that are performed by a larger proportion of women; for example, in the Office and Administrative” job family. However, it is also partly a result of the fact that women are relatively under-represented when it comes to jobs that are expected to have the most growth in the next five years; for example, the Computer and Mathematical and Architecture and Engineering job families.

Another way of looking at this, according to our analysis, is to consider that, given women’s low participation in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematical) professions, one of the fastest-growing areas of job creation, women stand to gain only one new STEM job for every 20 lost across other job families, whereas the ratio for men is one new job for every four lost elsewhere.

This new data illustrates the urgency with which leaders across business and policy must find new ways to ensure that the full talent pool of men and women is educated, recruited and promoted. And there are encouraging signs that this is already being addressed. According to our survey, while traditionally employers have struggled to retain women colleagues beyond the junior level, respondents expect to see an increase of 7-9 percentage points in the share of women in mid-level positions by 2020 and an 8-13 percentage point rise in the number of senior positions being held by women as retention becomes ever more important in the face of key global talent shortages.

The expected increase applies to all nine industry sectors assessed in the report, although to varying degrees. The three that will see the most significant increases of female workers across all job categories between now and 2020 are: Energy (22%-30%); Basic Industries and Infrastructure (20%-27%) and Healthcare (41%-48%). In all three, the number of women in senior roles is expected to double, albeit from a low base.

The Media, Entertainment and Information sector is the only one that will see a reduction in the number of women in the next five years, with female composition expected to drop across all job levels, from 47% to 46%. However even here, women can expect to see more opportunity, with the proportion of women in mid-level and senior-level positions expected to grow from 25% in each today to 32% and 33% respectively.

Despite well-documented worldwide talent shortages in key positions, there are a variety of reasons given by respondents – mainly chief human resources officers and senior strategy executives – as to why they are seeking to raise the number of women in their organizations. Here, fairness and equality stands out as the leading reason, having been chosen by 42% of respondents. By contrast, only 23% said they were doing so to enhance innovation or better reflect the gender composition of their customer base, the next two highest-placed rationales.

Industry Analysis

Female talent remains one of the most underutilized business resources, either lost through lack of progression or untapped from the onset. Although women are, on average, more educated than men globally and now participate more fully in professional and technical occupations than 10 years ago, as of today, their chances to rise to positions of leadership are only 28% of those of men globally. Women continue to make up less of the labour force overall than men, and where they participate in the formal economy their earnings for similar work are lower.

The talents of half the world’s potential workforce are thus often wasted or underutilized due to barriers on the path to women’s successful workforce integration.

Across all industries, women make up on average 35% of junior level staff, 25% of mid-level staff, 15% of senior level staff and 10% of chief executive officers (CEOs). The industries with the worst junior level uptake include Mobility, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Energy, and Basic and Infrastructure. They also report more dramatic drop-offs along the talent pipeline, with low intake at the junior level translating to similar underperformance later on, creating a vicious circle. At CEO-level, women continue to be profoundly under-represented, reflecting the drop-off at board and senior levels.

Many business leaders increasingly recognize that tackling barriers to equality can unlock new opportunities for growth. The top approaches businesses intend to take are: promoting work-life balance, setting targets, measure progress, development and leadership training, and demonstrating leadership commitment. Our respondents perceive a wide range of rationales for making investments to promote workplace gender parity, varying with the specific situation of different industries. In the ICT sector, which struggles especially with female talent shortages, companies are increasingly convinced that female participation is an opportunity for expanding their talent pool.

Currently, the ICT sector recruits roughly 30% and 1 in 10 for senior roles Across all industries, unconscious bias among managers and lack of work-life balance are cited as the two top barriers to women’s workforce integration in the next five years, with each barrier being cited as important to 44% of employers. About 36% of businesses voiced concern about the availability of qualified talent, in particular employers in the Energy, ICT and Mobility industries – these businesses were also the ones most likely to employ less women at junior level. The ICT industry sees this issue as the main barrier to a more gender-balanced workforce. Financial Services and Investors and Professional Services place more emphasis on women’s own aspirations as a barrier, with Professional Services seeing it as the main limiting factor for promoting women’s talent. Lack of work-life balance is perceived as a particular barrier in the Consumer and Financial Services and Investors industries.

Occupation Analysis

The drivers of change propelling the Fourth Industrial Revolution will heavily disrupt some of the job families with the largest share of female employees, such as Office and Administrative roles, but also some of those with the largest female gender gap, such as Manufacturing and Production, Architecture and Engineering, and Computer and Mathematical roles.


For example, based on current trends and predictions, men will lose more than 1.7 million jobs across the Manufacturing and Production and Construction and Extraction job families, but are set to gain over 600,000 jobs in Architecture and Engineering and Computer and Mathematical functions. Women will lose only 370,000 million jobs in these two male-dominated job families but are set to gain little more than 100,000 jobs in Architecture and Engineering and Computer and Mathematical functions if current gender gap ratios persist over the 2015-2020 period.

If current industry gender gap trends persist and labour market transformation towards new and emerging roles in computer, technology and engineering-related fields continues to outpace the rate at which women are currently entering those types of jobs, women are at risk of losing out on tomorrow’s best job opportunities while aggravating hiring processes for companies due to a restricted applicant pool and reducing the diversity dividend within the company.

The Case for Cooperation

While substantially more effort will be needed, The Industry Gender Gap Report finds some encouraging signs that current trends need not continue. As traditionally male-dominated job families take on newfound importance and applications in industries that previously housed few such roles but have a strong track record of employing, retaining and leveraging female talent, the current culture may drive future recruitment efforts in new roles.

“In this age of disruption, business models can best bring in fresh thinking through leveraging all available talent and expanding the diversity of voices in their workforce,” said Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum.

In order to leverage the benefits of gender diversity, companies need to take a holistic approach, starting at the top. The report finds that, across all industries, targeting female talent is increasingly perceived as a key future workforce strategy. Across industries, 25% of all companies – and nearly half of all companies that prioritize future workforce planning and are confident that they are on the right track in their approach to preparing for impending disruptive change – see this as a key focus area.

“There is a unique opportunity at present to address long-existing gender divides in the economy. If we don’t take advantage of this, we will see more gender segregation in the workforce, affecting wages and livelihoods, not to mention greater economic inequality in society as a whole”, said Saadia Zahidi, Head of the Global Challenge on Gender Parity at the World Economic Forum. In part, this will entail businesses supplementing their current efforts to provide a more level playing field in their organizations with broader efforts to ensure that the vast pool of highly educated women – in over 100 countries women are the majority of those coming out of university – does not lose out on the opportunities offered by the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The World Economic Forum’s Global Challenge Initiative on Gender Parity (see below) brings together businesses and governments to collaborate on making these solutions a reality.

Methodology

The Future of Jobs Survey that formed the basis of the report covers over 350 of the largest companies in the world, including over 150 of the Fortune Global 500. In addition to the individual company responses, we had over 1,300 detailed occupation-level data points on mass employment, specialist and newly emerging occupations based in specific geographic locations across these companies’ global operations. The survey respondents primarily included chief human resource officers, chief strategy officers and other senior talent and strategy executives. Our target pool of respondents comprised, as the primary selection criterion, the 100 largest global employers in each of our target industry sectors. In addition to the aggregate analysis, the report contains 15 country or regional profiles and nine industry profiles providing detailed information for each on the current situation and the 2020 outlook. There was near gender balance among our respondents.

Global Challenge Initiative on Gender Parity

The World Economic Forum’s Global Challenge Initiative on Gender Parity produces analytical tools such as the Global Gender Gap Report, the Best Practices for Gender Parity compendium and the Industry Gender Gap study to allow companies and countries to benchmark their current performance, assess their future prospects and learn from best practices. In addition, the Initiative creates public-private partnerships to close economic gender gaps in selected countries and cooperates with industries to analyse, forecast and address contextual and industry-factors contributing to persistent gender gaps, working closely with multi stakeholder communities of leaders and experts dedicated to closing gender gaps.

Partners of the Global Challenge Initiative on Gender Parity are: Alghanim Industries, A.T. Kearney, Bank of America, Bloomberg, Hubert Burda Media, Centene Corporation, The Coca-Cola Company, EY, Heidrick & Struggles, JLL, Johnson Controls Inc., ManpowerGroup, Old Mutual, Omnicom, Ooredoo, PwC, Renault-Nissan Alliance, Takeda Pharmaceutical, and Tupperware Brands Corporation.

Over 2,500 leaders from business, government, international organizations, civil society, academia, media and the arts will participate in the 46th World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland, on 20-23 January. Under the theme, Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the programme comprises over 250 sessions, of which over 100 will be webcast live.

Taking a formative role in shaping the discussion at the Annual Meeting 2016 as the Co-Chairs are: Mary Barra, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, General Motors, USA; Sharan Burrow, General Secretary, International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), Brussels; Satya Nadella, Chief Executive Officer, Microsoft Corporation, USA; Hiroaki Nakanishi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hitachi, Japan; Tidjane Thiam, Chief Executive Officer, Credit Suisse, Switzerland; and Amira Yahyaoui, Founder and Chair, Al Bawsala, Tunisia.

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