Job-related stress is catching up with workers. A new study by Concordia University (Canada) economists, published in BMC Public Health, has found that increased job stress causes workers to increasingly seek help from health professionals for physical, mental and emotional ailments linked to job stress. Indeed, the number of visits to healthcare professionals is up to 26% for workers in high stress jobs.
"These results show that people in medium-to-high stress jobs visit family doctors and specialists more often than workers with low job stress," says first author Sunday Azagba, a PhD candidate in the Concordia Department of Economics.
To reach their conclusions, the economists crunched nationally representative data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). All NPHS figures were restricted to adults aged 18 to 65 years — the bulk of the labour force — and included statistics on the number of healthcare visits, chronic illnesses, marital status, income level, smoking and drinking habits.
"We believe an increasing number of workers are using medical services to cope with job stress," says co-author Mesbah Sharaf, a PhD candidate in the Concordia Department of Economics.
"There is medical evidence that stress can adversely affect an individual's immune system, thereby increasing the risk of disease," Sharaf continues. "Numerous studies have linked stress to back pain, colorectal cancer, infectious disease, heart problems, headaches and diabetes. Job stress may also heighten risky behaviours such as smoking, drug and alcohol abuse, discourage healthy behaviours such as physical activity, proper diet and increased consumption of fatty and sweet foods."
Cost of stressful workplaces
Previous research has found that ageing populations and prescription drugs increase the price of healthcare. Yet few studies have so far correlated workplace stress rates on healthcare costs. "Healthcare spending in Canada, as a percentage of gross domestic product, increased from 7% in 1980 to 10.1% in 2007," says Azagba.
In the United States, recent polls found that 70% of American workers consider their workplace a significant source of stress, whereas 51% report that job stress reduces their productivity. "It is estimated that healthcare utilisation induced by stress costs US companies $68 billion annually and reduces their profits by 10%," says Sharaf.
Total health care expenditures in the US amount to $2.5 trillion, or $8,047 per person. "That represents 17.3% of the 2009 gross domestic product — a 9% increase from 1980," says Azagba.
Less stress means more savings
The economists caution that easing workplace stress could help governments reduce soaring health budgets and bolster employee morale.
"Improving stressful working conditions and educating workers on stress-coping mechanisms could help to reduce health care costs," says Azagba. "Managing workplace stress can also foster other economic advantages, such as increased productivity among workers, reduce absenteeism and diminish employee turnover."
The occupations analysed as part of the Canadian National Population Health Survey included seven categories: mechanical, trade, professional, managerial, health, service and farming. - (EurekAlert!, August 2011)