Omega-3 is hailed as one of the super nutrients, boosting the functioning of many processes in the body but how much of an affect can these fatty acids have on improving a child’s behaviour?
Common in kids with ADHD
A new, first-of-its-kind study by the University of Pennsylvania aimed to investigate just that.
Specifically, the researchers aimed to determine whether omega-3, vitamin and mineral supplementation would be more effective in reducing aggressive behaviour when combined with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).
Aggressive behaviour is particularly common among children with ADHD and behavioural disorders.
Read: ADHD and learning
The randomised, single-blind study published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry involved 290 children aged 11–12 years, dividing them into four groups, one group receiving only nutritional supplementation, one receiving only CBT, one receiving both nutritional supplementation and CBT and one control group.
The results showed that after three months of treatment the nutrition-only group showed a reduction in aggressive behaviour when compared to the control group. Three months after treatment, the group receiving nutritional supplementation and CBT showed less antisocial behaviour than both the control and the CBT-only group.
Only a temporary effect
However, the dietary changes only showed a short-term effect. Nine months after treatment, there were no noticeable differences between the four groups – an indication that ongoing supplementation may be needed to maintain the behavioural improvements.
It is also worth noting that the researchers describe the reduction of aggressive behaviours in the groups receiving nutritional supplementation as being in the “small to moderate range”.
There were also discrepancies in the behavioural reports provided by parents and the children involved, a University of Pennsylvania press release explains.
Commenting on the results of the study, lead researcher Professor Adrian Raine stated, “We can’t oversimplify the complexity of antisocial behaviour. There are many causes. It’s not just the brain. Is it a piece of the jigsaw puzzle? I think it is.”
Professor Raine has dedicated his career to researching antisocial behaviour. A previous study conducted by Professor Raine found that children who were given a daily omega-3 supplement for 6 months showed a reduction in anxiety, depression and aggressive behaviours such as fighting.
The study is the first to explore the effect of a combination of CBT and nutritional therapy on child behaviour.
Further research on the topic is needed.