Recent figures suggest 10% of the South African population has already been positively diagnosed with ADHD.
Yet one Cape Town optometrist says that 67% of children diagnosed may actually have a vision problem which could be rectified with the right treatment and/or glasses.
Children often misdiagnosed
Nikky Häberle, a Behavioural Optometrist is passionately promoting awareness of vision-based learning problems, so more parents are aware and can get their children tested and potentially avoid unnecessary medication.
Read: What is ADHD?
She explains that children with vision problems may act like they have ADD, but the behaviour is very similar to those with vision-based learning problems; highly distractible, short attention spans, careless errors in writing, failure to complete assignments, fidgety and off task.
“Their inability to remain on task is caused by the discomfort of using their eyes for long periods of time at close ranges, not true deficits in attention. Unfortunately, parents and teachers are not trained to recognise the difference and these children are often misdiagnosed,” she says.
Eye strain affects attention span
Nikky says that children with eye teaming disorders have difficulty using their two eyes together at the close-up distances required for reading and writing.
This means they cannot concentrate for an extended time and often, after only a few minutes, they cannot control their eye movements and the print on the page begins to jump and move as they struggle to aim their eyes at the same point on the page.
Read: Symptoms of ADHD
This results in eyestrain as they fight to coordinate their eyes and the way they get relief is to look away or take a break from what they were doing. Unfortunately this "vision break" as Nikky explains, is often construed as not paying attention.
“Children with eye teaming problems have always seen this way, and most are not aware that their close-up vision is not normal. Few report eye strain or blurred or double print; all they know is that they cannot continue with their seat work one more moment. As the day progresses, they get worse.”
Nikky is not alone in her research into the connection between eye teaming problems and attention deficit disorders and investigations into this and the possible ramifications are increasing worldwide.
Read: Who gets ADHD?
According to one expert, Dr David B. Granet, director of the Ratner Children's Eye Centre of the University of California and a paediatric ophthalmologist, this kind of eye teaming problem causes children to have difficulty keeping both eyes focused on a close target making it more difficult for them to concentrate on reading – which is one of the ways doctors diagnose ADHD.
He even goes so far as to advise that no child be diagnosed with ADD or ADHD until their visual system has been checked because the chance of a misdiagnosis is probable.
The South African situation
Current guidelines in SA do not include a visual screening to accompany a diagnosis of ADHD, a fact which Nikky laments as she believes it is a vital component of the diagnosis.
“Approximately 25% of the general SA population have vision problems that are severe enough to require vision therapy. A relatively high number of people who receive testing at NH Optometrist are in that 25% range, simply because they have been referred by a teacher, psychologist or occupational therapist, or they realise they have many of the symptoms.”
What to watch out for
If you suspect that your child may have a vision problem with or without ADHD Nikky suggests you take a look at the following checklist:
Appearance of child’s eyes:
• Often teary
• Encrusted eyelids
• Frequent styes on lids
Do they complain of:
• Burning eyes