Children who are struggling with concentration and are hyperactive are often seen as “problem children”. More often than not, they are diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and prescribed medication to stop their “disruptive behaviour” in class.
And according to researchers from the George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health there was a 43% increase in ADHD diagnoses among US school pupils in the past decade.
But parents often wonder if this increase is due to the disorder being more prevalent, or due to experts making the diagnosis too early or even unnecessarily?
Dr Renata Schoeman, a specialist psychiatrist, says ADHD is often misdiagnosed. “When a child is restless in the classroom or they daydream, it’s easy to assume it’s ADHD,” she told Health24.
“But just because a child has concentration problems, doesn’t automatically mean they suffer from ADHD.”
Peter Collis, a clinical psychologist from Cape Town, agrees with Schoeman. “ADHD is commonly attributed to disorders of anxiety and depression. Occasionally, it’s associated with bipolar disorder.” This co-morbidity can make diagnosis difficult.
“In adults a similar pattern is present and in a lot of cases ‘ADHD’ is simply an indication of an underlying psychiatric disorder,” says Schoeman.
There are many symptoms associated with ADHD, some which include:
- Having a short attention span and being easily distracted
- Being unable to stick at tasks that are tedious or time-consuming
- Appearing to be unable to listen to or carry out instructions
- Not being able to sit still, especially in calm or quiet surroundings
- Constantly fidgeting
- Not being able to hold a train of thought in a conversation
Read: Does my child have ADHD?
These are just general symptoms, and Schoeman says a comprehensive assessment is the only way to make sure the diagnosis of ADHD is valid. This is a scientific process and should include:
- A hearing test. It might be that the child has hearing problems, and thus appear to not be able to concentrate.
- An eye test. Having visual disturbances can lead to a wrong diagnosis.
- Occupational assessment. An occupation therapist can determine whether an ADHD component might be present.
- A lifestyle audit. According to Collis sleeping problems and other lifestyle complications can manifest as ADHD symptoms.
- A behavioural and emotional assessment. “Sometimes children just need some time to adjust and mature. Or sometimes children have anxiety and other disorders that manifest as ADHD.” A psychologist or psychiatrist can help with this diagnosis.
Schoeman’s advice is to start with so-called “conservative therapy”. “First focus on the environment and see what structure and routine you can provide. Then, if indicated, or in severe cases, medication should be used.”
Signs of a misdiagnosis
Collis says a misdiagnosis would mean that the problem persists: “Despite interventions such as remedial tuition, occupational therapy or psychotherapy, there’s no improvement,” says Collis.
Schoeman agrees and adds that continuous side effects of medication, or the patient not being responsive to the medication, may be indications that one is barking up the wrong tree.
“One always has to weigh up the benefit and risk profile of the patient. If the risks and side effects outweigh the benefits, it might not be worth it.”