Swine flu, or pandemic influenza A/H1N1, is a viral illness caused by the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. It was first isolated in Mexico and the United States in April 2009 and has since spread around the world. Disease from this strain of influenza is largely indistinguishable from that of seasonal (annual) influenza.
As in seasonal influenza, the virus spreads easily from person to person through droplet distribution when an infected person coughs or sneezes or, quite commonly, through hand-to-hand contact. Influenza viruses can infect the nose, throat, sinuses, upper airways and lungs.
Although often a mild disease, pandemic H1N1 can be life-threatening in children and young adults, pregnant women, people with decreased immunity (e.g. through HIV infection) and in people of any age who have certain underlying conditions. As is true for any influenza infection, those most at risk should do all they can to avoid it and should be treated as soon as possible if it is indicated.
The pandemic H1N1 virus
As this virus is an influenza A virus, it has two kinds of protein spikes on the outermost layer (or envelope). These spikes (called Haemagglutinin and Neuraminidase) are the distinguishing features of the virus. Although more than one type of influenza A exists (as indicated by the H and N annotation), the pandemic H1N1 virus will always be an H1N1-type influenza A virus. Small genetic changes may occur, which may alter the characteristics of the virus, but on its own this virus can never become an H3N2 or any other type of influenza A virus.
A typical pandemic H1N1 strain might be named A/California/7/09(H1N1), where A represents the type of influenza, California the place of origin, 7 the 7th virus isolated from the place of origin in the particular year, 09, the year it was isolated, and H1N1 the specific spikes present on the outside of the virus’ envelope.
How does the pandemic H1N1 virus spread?
An infected person sheds the virus from their nose and throat. This starts at about the same time flu symptoms begin and continues for about a week. By coughing or sneezing, the virus is then transmitted in one of three ways:
The virus can be spread in large droplets, regarded as the most common method of spreading1.
It can also be spread by infectious aerosols, which are tiny particles in the air, small and light enough not to settle on surfaces. These aerosols can typically stay in suspension for up to 60 minutes1.
The virus can contaminate hands, tissues, handkerchiefs or other objects after the sick person has sneezed or coughed. If someone else touches these objects, they may contract the virus.
When the virus reaches the cells of your airways – either because you’ve breathed in droplets or aerosols or because you’ve touched an infected surface – it can establish an infection and has therefore been spread successfully.
Children and young adults are most likely to become victims of pandemic H1N1. That’s because people born after 1977 have had no exposure to a pandemic H1N1-related virus, and therefore don’t have the required immunity.
The highest infection rate is among children younger than 15. 2 Closed communities, such as schools and university campuses, are prone to outbreaks of influenza.
Some, or all, of the symptoms of seasonal flu may be present:
- High fever (often higher than 39 °C) with chills
- Dry cough
- Sore throat
- Blocked nose or nasal discharge
- Sweating and shivering
- Muscle aches and pains, especially in the legs (the “I've been run over by a bus” feeling)
- General malaise
- Fatigue and sleepiness all day
Symptoms can occur abruptly, and it is sometimes possible to pinpoint the exact hour of the day that symptoms began. Diarrhoea and other stomach complaints are seen in 22%-39% of cases – more than in seasonal flu – and may occur in up to 80% of patients younger than 143.
Both children and adults can develop serious complications when they have the flu. People who have the highest risk of developing complications should be vaccinated (see ‘Who should be vaccinated?’). Complications include:
Primary influenza virus pneumonia
This is the most common complication of pandemic H1N1, and in 2009 it occurred in up to 49% of people admitted to intensive care units.3
It’s a form of pneumonia that occurs when the flu virus has caused severe lung damage. It will start with the usual symptoms of flu, but the fever will persist, coughing will worsen and you’ll become extremely short of breath. In severe cases, you may have a bluish tinge and become confused due to a lack of oxygen.
This form of pneumonia is very serious and will require intensive respiratory support in a hospital. Most people who develop primary viral pneumonia have underlying heart and lung disease and should therefore have a yearly flu vaccination.
Secondary bacterial pneumonia
This occurs when bacteria cause a secondary infection in the lungs. Up to 32% of pandemic H1N1 patients developed this complication in 2009.3 Although it is the most frequent complication of seasonal influenza, it occurs less often in pandemic H1N1.
Typical symptoms are recurrence of fever, shortness of breath and a productive cough (when secretions come up during coughing) four to 14 days after flu symptoms have almost disappeared.
This complication is most often caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.
Some doctors recommend that people in high-risk groups be vaccinated against pneumococcal pneumonia as well as influenza.
People suffering from pandemic H1N1 are probably at risk of complications similar to that of seasonal flu. There is as yet no clear difference in the occurrence of these complications.
Exacerbations of chronic lung diseases
It is well known that infection with viruses called rhinoviruses and coronaviruses may worsen chronic lung diseases – such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – but infection with the flu virus may be responsible for 25% of these exacerbations.
Myositis and myocarditis
Rarely inflammation of the muscles of the body (myositis) may occur in influenza infection. This will be evident with painful, tender leg muscles and is more often seen in children.
Also, very rarely, inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis) can occur. Symptoms include tiredness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, a rapid pulse and discomfort in the chest.
Because myositis and myocarditis might be more likely to happen if the muscles are put under stress, it’s not a good idea to exercise while you’re suffering from flu or any other viral illness.
Complications of the nervous system and brain
Young children with flu may have fever fits (called febrile convulsions), as is possible in any illness involving a high temperature.
Children with fever should never be given aspirin or medication containing aspirin. It is associated with a potentially fatal disease called Reye's syndrome. Although the causes of Reye’s syndrome are unknown, it is almost exclusively seen in children who have been given aspirin to treat fever associated with virus infections.
Reye's syndrome is a very serious condition affecting the brain and liver. Symptoms may include vomiting, lethargy, altered consciousness, seizures and respiratory arrest. The majority of children will recover from Reye's syndrome, but in some cases it might cause permanent brain damage and death.
Other central nervous system complications that have been associated with influenza virus infection include Guillain-Barré syndrome, encephalitis and transverse myelitis, but these are very rare.
It is impossible to accurately determine the true number of influenza infections, as many infections are not reported to healthcare institutions. As of 9 April 2010, worldwide more than 213 countries have reported laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1, including over 17 700 deaths5. From England it was reported that as many as 1 in 3 children were infected in areas with a high rate of infection2.
Doctors presume that the pandemic H1N1 strain follows the same pattern of infection as seasonal influenza. Symptoms start about 48 hours after exposure to the virus, although this period may vary from one to four days. You typically have continuous fever for about three days, although other symptoms such as cough, lethargy and general malaise may persist for longer.
You’re considered “infectious” when the virus is shed from your airways. This can occur from the day of infection and can continue for eight days – even longer in people with decreased immunity3. Most people have an uneventful recovery after treatment for symptoms only.
As with seasonal flu, the first step in diagnosis is a clinical suspicion. You or your general practitioner may suspect influenza based on symptoms and the occurrence of the illness in the community. The higher the occurrence of the virus in the community, the higher the chance diagnosis, because other respiratory viruses may cause the same symptoms.
Influenza infection can only be confirmed by a laboratory test: throat and/or nasal swabs are taken and the virus is grown in cell culture. After the virus has multiplied in culture, it can be detected in many ways, for instance by adding red blood cells or using a fluorescence microscope.
More recently developed techniques include the use of methods to detect the presence of the genetic information (RNA) of the virus, termed reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Currently, most South African laboratories use an RT-PCR test to confirm pandemic H1N1 infection. The test is often done in conjunction with tests for other respiratory viruses as well, in order to establish the cause of infection, should it turn out to be not pandemic H1N1.
How to keep flu at bay
Protection against seasonal flu and pandemic H1N1 is exactly the same.
By far the most effective way to prevent flu is to have the annual flu vaccine.
Many cold and flu viruses are acquired from people who don’t yet have symptoms, and it’s always difficult to contain viruses that travel through the air. You can’t help being exposed to these viruses. However, there are some general measures you can take to give yourself the best chance of avoidance:
At home or work
- Wash your hands frequently and don’t touch your nose, eyes or mouth unnecessarily.
- "Contain" sneezes and coughs with disposable tissues (and make sure to dispose of them right away!) and wash your hands afterwards.
- Try not to touch objects around you when in public places, such as the rail of the escalator or your coughing colleague's pen or computer mouse.
- To minimise exposure, avoid close or prolonged contact with people with colds or flu. With an incubation period of one to four days and a contagious period of seven days or longer, it’s best to avoid any person with flu for at least a week.
- There may be a role for vitamin A supplementation to prevent flu in malnourished children.
- Quit smoking. Those who smoke are more vulnerable to complications of respiratory infections.
- Clean surfaces – especially kitchen and bathroom counter tops – with disinfectant soap.
- Discourage your child from sharing food, utensils, handkerchiefs, napkins and towels with classmates.
- Toys may be contaminated with respiratory secretions. Look for childcare centres where plastic toys are washed daily and stuffed toys washed weekly.
- Teach your children to wash their hands before and after eating, after using the bathroom, after touching their faces, after spending time in public spaces and after touching animals.
- Rather keep your toddler at home if a child at the crèche has the flu and yours is healthy. Similarly, keep your children at home if they show symptoms of flu, so that they don’t infect other children.
The flu shot
The best way to reduce your chances of contracting flu is by getting a flu vaccination. Although flu is generally not dangerous, it can cause serious complications and even death, especially in children, young adults, pregnant women, people with decreased immunity and other risk groups. That’s why you should rather avoid contracting this highly contagious disease, especially if you’re vulnerable.
Should I get the pandemic H1N1 vaccine or the regular flu vaccine?
Three strains of influenza are generally included in the annual vaccine. The specific strains depend on a prediction of what strains arre likely to circulate in a given season. For winter 2010 in the Southern Hemisphere, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the two influenza A strains (one H1N1 strain and one H3N2 strain), as well as one strain of influenza B.
The included H1N1 strain is similar to one of the pandemic H1N1 viruses first isolated in California in 2009. Therefore, by taking this year’s influenza vaccine, you have protection against pandemic H1N1 and two other strains of flu.
There is also a single-strain vaccine against pandemic influenza A. This vaccine includes the same H1N1 influenza strain as the combined annual vaccine, but without the influenza A/H3N2 and influenza B strains.
How do influenza vaccines work?
Influenza vaccines are produced from inactivated (dead) viruses. They don’t contain the infective virus and can therefore not cause flu. They can be administered safely to people with weakened immune systems.
Within one to two weeks after receiving the vaccine, your body produces antibodies which will fight the virus if you’re exposed to it. Infection will be either prevented, or the severity of your symptoms will be reduced.
Although the antibodies will prevent infection with the three vaccine-included influenza strains (and several more closely related strains), there is no guarantee that you won’t get sick during winter.
The flu shot is usually given in one dose as an injection into the muscle (usually the upper arm). If children under nine have not been vaccinated before, they should receive a second vaccination one month later. Children under three should receive half the adult dose on two occasions, one month apart.
The latest vaccine – using live viruses made harmless, and administered in the form of a nasal spray – was introduced in the USA in 2008 and in Canada in 2009, but this is not yet available in South Africa.
How effective is the influenza vaccine really?
No vaccine is 100% effective. Factors within any individual or relating to the vaccine may cause the vaccine not to take or not to provide full protection.
When the pandemic H1N1 vaccine was used as a single-strain (monovalent) vaccine, it had a good immune response in 80%-96% of adults aged 18-64, and in 56%-80% in those older than 65 years4. When the pandemic strain is included in the annual vaccine, the protection rates are assumed to be equal to that seen for seasonal influenza, i.e. 70%-90% when well matched and 50%-80% when not well matched7.
Who should be vaccinated?
Anyone who does not have a contraindication (see ‘Who should not be vaccinated?’) and who wants to reduce the likelihood of becoming ill with flu, should be vaccinated.
The immunisation recommendations of the National Advisory Group on Immunization (NAGI) of South Africa for 2010, in order of priority, are8:
- Pregnant women, irrespective of stage of pregnancy
- Those older than six months with underlying medical conditions predisposing them to flu complications. These conditions include chronic lung disease, chronic heart disease, chronic neurological disease, chronic renal disease, mild to severe diabetes and related metabolic conditions and people on aspirin therapy.
- Frontline healthcare and emergency medical service personnel who come into direct contact with patients
- HIV-infected adults with a CD4 count above 100 and all HIV-infected children, six months to five years of age
- Caregivers of infants younger than six months in day-care centres
- Everyone older than 65
- Children between six months and five years
- People between five and 24 years old who live in hostels, boarding schools and similar institutional settings
Breastfeeding moms may also receive the flu shot without affecting the safety of the infant.
Who should not be vaccinated?
Some people shouldn't be vaccinated. Examples are:
- Babies younger than six months
- Be careful if you’re allergic to eggs (the protein albumin), because the vaccine virus is grown in eggs. But if necessary, even people allergic to eggs may be vaccinated under close medical supervision.
- Be wary if you’ve experienced side effects with previous vaccinations that contained components or constituents included in the current vaccine. Under certain conditions, you may receive the vaccine in two half doses.
- Rather delay your flu shot if you’re ill with a high fever or any acute illness.
- Although there are no known adverse effects on the fetus, vaccines are generally avoided in the first trimester of pregnancy. But as pandemic H1N1 is known to cause complications in pregnant women, it’s best to take the vaccination irrespective of the stage of pregnancy.
- If you have a bleeding disorder, you should not be vaccinated without first consulting a healthcare professional.
Consult your doctor/healthcare professional if you think you should not be vaccinated, or if you’re uncertain.
Side effects might occur in some people
The vaccine cannot cause flu as the virus in the vaccine is dead and not infectious. Up to now only 0,08% of recipients of the pandemic H1N1 vaccine experienced side effects. Of these side effects 93% were classified as “non-serious”9.
Typical side effects include:
- Mild soreness at the site of the injection is common and lasts one to three days.
- About 1%-9% of people may experience fever, headache, sore muscles or other symptoms resembling flu that can start within twelve hours of receiving the flu shot10. It will last only 24 hours. These symptoms are not uncommon in children and the elderly.
If you start experiencing these symptoms more than a day after you’ve been vaccinated, or if they last longer than two days, it is almost certainly due to an illness unrelated to the vaccine. In such cases you should consult your doctor or healthcare professional.
When is the best time to be vaccinated?
It takes the immune system about two to three weeks to produce sufficient quantities of specific antibodies against the flu strains in the vaccine10. This means that the best time to be vaccinated against the flu is before the end of April, before the flu season typically starts. However, there is no cut-off date for flu vaccination; it can be given at any stage during winter.
There are two classes of drugs currently available for the treatment and prevention of influenza infections, the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors.
The adamantanes, amantadine (Symmetrel®) and rimantadine (Flumadine®) should not be used for the treatment or prevention of pandemic H1N1, as the virus is inherently resistant to these drugs.
There are two neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir (Tamiflu®)11 and zanamivir (Relenza®)12 currently available for the treatment and prevention of pandemic H1N1. Resistance against oseltamivir has been reported – mainly in people with a compromised immune system or those taking it to prevent the flu – but not in South Africa to date. Prevention of flu infection with antivirals should never be a substitute for vaccination, and should be reserved for people who cannot be vaccinated or are severely immunosuppressed.
Oseltamivir is an oral medication that has been approved by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of flu in people who are one year and older who have not been sick for more than 48 hours, and for the prevention of flu in people who are one year and older. The FDA has authorised the emergency use of oseltamivir for the treatment of pandemic H1N1 in children younger than a year.
For adults and adolescents the dosage is one 75 mg capsule twice a day for five days for treatment, and one capsule a day for 10 days for prevention. Oseltamivir is also available in a suspension for children.
It’s important to take the full course of prescribed medication. The most common side effects are nausea and vomiting, so rather take the medication with food. Several studies have shown that if oseltamivir is taken within 48 hours of symptom onset, the duration of illness is shortened by one to one and a half days.
Only people with severe or progressive pandemic H1N1 infection and those at greatest risk of developing complications due to pandemic H1N1 infection should be treated with oseltamivir.
Zanamivir may also be used for the treatment of pandemic H1N1 infection in these groups when oseltamivir is not available or cannot be used.
Zanamivir has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of flu in people who are seven years or older who have not been sick for more than 48 hours, and for the prevention of flu in people who are five years and older.
It should not be used for either treatment or prevention of flu in people with an underlying airways disease – such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – due to the risk of severe bronchospasm.
Zanamavir is available as a powder for inhalation and the recommended treatment dosage is two inhalations (10 mg of zanamivir) twice a day for five days. The recommended dosage for prevention is two inhalations once a day for 10 days.
If you have a history of allergic reactions to milk proteins such as lactose, you should also not use zanamivir, as lactose powder is used as a carrier powder.
Studies have shown that if zanamivir is taken within 48 hours of symptom onset, the duration of illness is shortened by about a day.
General supportive treatment
When you have flu, it is important to stay in bed, rest and drink enough fluids to give your body time to fight the infection.
Over-the-counter medicationmay help relieve the symptoms, but will not fight the virus itself. Paracetamol, aspirin or ibuprofen may help to relieve fever, muscle aches and headache, while decongestants may help to treat nasal congestion.
Please bear in mind that the use of nasal decongestants for more than five consecutive days will worsen symptoms after discontinuation due to a rebound effect.
Suppressive cough mixtures may help clear up the dry cough, typical of flu. Pregnant women should be cautious about taking drugs and children under 16 should not receive aspirin. Influenza should never be treated with antibiotics, as it is caused by a virus and not a bacterium. Antibiotics should only be prescribed by a doctor when secondary bacterial infection is suspected.
Several vitamin supplements and natural/botanical remedies have been advocated to help with the treatment of colds and influenza, but there is little and/or conflicting scientific evidence regarding the use of these preparations. A meta-analysis of seven double-blind, randomised controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of vitamin C for the treatment of the common cold, found no statistically significant benefit in duration or severity of symptoms13. There is conflicting results regarding the benefit of zinc lozenges in the treatment of common cold symptoms, with most studies showing no or a slight reduction in the duration of symptoms14.
It is important to remember that high doses of vitamin C and zinc, which is commonly used in trials, may cause gastrointestinal side effects such as stomach pain, nausea and vomiting.
The majority of clinical trials that showed that high doses of vitamin A is beneficial in the treatment of viral respiratory tract infections have been conducted in underweight, malnourished, vitamin A-deficient children. No consistent benefit has been observed in healthy children or adults with viral respiratory-tract infections.
There is conflicting evidence regarding the use of Echinacea in the treatment of colds and flu. The results of the different trials cannot be compared, as the products used contain different species of Echinacea, different parts of the plant and different preparations.
It is also important to remember that Echinacea should not be given to pregnant women, children, and people taking immunosuppressant or liver-toxic drugs. The long-term safety of Echinacea also remains unknown. The benefit of other natural remedies, including elderberry, andrographis, garlic and peppermint remain unknown.
Influenza and breastfeeding
The flu virus cannot be transmitted from mother to baby through breast milk. Continue breastfeeding if you have flu, as the antibodies you transmit to your baby via the breast milk help to protect him or her from infection.
Influenza and pregnancy
Pregnant women, especially those in the second and third trimester, are at increased risk for developing severe seasonal influenza. In the case of pandemic H1N1, women at any stage of pregnancy appear to be at increased risk of developing severe or fatal influenza. That’s why current influenza vaccination recommendations include all pregnant women.
Influenza and sport
Refrain from strenuous exercise while you’re ill. If you are a professional athlete, remember that several ingredients of over-the-counter medications for cold and flu are banned by the respective governing bodies.
Flu and smokers
In smokers, the cilia (the tiny "brooms" of the airways which clear the lungs) are already damaged, which means that an important defence mechanism of the airways is compromised. They are further compromised by the flu, which can make one more vulnerable to complications such as secondary bacterial infection.
When should you see a doctor?
Under certain circumstances, you may need to consult your doctor when you have flu.
- If you have a high fever for more than a few hours that does not respond to over-the-counter medicine, and you are not certain whether it is caused by flu, it’s a good idea to see a healthcare professional for an opinion.
- If your fever lasts longer than two days
- If you feel sick and just don't seem to get better
- If you have a cough that begins to produce phlegm
- Any sign of complications of flu (see "Complications") should prompt a visit to a healthcare professional.
- If you have difficulty breathing or feel a sharp pain when breathing
- If you fall into any of the high-risk categories recommended for vaccination, even a mild bout of flu should be treated by a health professional. This includes people with cancer, people on medication after organ transplantation and HIV-positive people.
How does a doctor diagnose flu?
Healthcare professionals can usually recognise flu by looking at the symptoms and signs alone.
Symptoms such as a high fever, a dry cough, nasal congestion and aching limbs make the diagnosis of flu very apparent. If it is known that flu is active in the community, then the diagnosis of flu becomes even more probable. The doctor’s suspicion can also be confirmed by a laboratory test.
The when and how of laboratory tests
Laboratory diagnosis of a viral respiratory illness might be attempted for one of the following reasons:
- When the illness is severe, requiring admission to hospital
- In children, where other viruses mimicking influenza may be the cause of disease
- When infection with more than one virus is suspected
- To help decide whether an antibiotic is necessary, because viral infections don’t respond to antibiotics
- For academic interest
How is a laboratory test performed?
How can a doctor treat flu?
- In low-risk cases and without signs of secondary bacterial infections, the doctor will treat the flu symptoms very much the same way you would treat yourself: mainly with over-the-counter medications. When the diagnosis is clear and illness is uncomplicated, there is not much else to be done. Studies have shown that in the majority of cases the symptoms of flu will subside within three to four days, with or without symptom-relieving medication.
- Over-the-counter cold and flu preparations cannot cure flu, but will relieve symptoms.
- In high-risk cases, antiviral drugs may be prescribed, or in people with a secondary bacterial infection appropriate antibiotics may be prescribed. Remember to complete all courses of prescribed antiviral drugs or antibiotics. This will prevent the development of resistant infections.
- In more severe cases, the doctor might consider hospitalisation.
Flu myths and facts
Many misconceptions about the flu virus and vaccine persist, despite the widespread impact of the disease and the benefit of vaccination.
Myth: Flu is no more than a nuisance, much like the common cold and cannot be prevented.
Fact: Flu is a severe and sometimes life-threatening disease that causes 250 000-500 000 deaths worldwide annually. You can avoid getting the disease by getting going for a flu shot every year.
Myth: You can get flu from the injectable vaccination.
Fact: The injectable vaccine does not contain any live virus, so it is impossible to get flu from the vaccine. Minor side effects may occur in some people such as mild soreness, redness, swelling at the injection site, headache or a low-grade fever. Most of the side effects are due to the body’s immune response to the vaccine. In fact, these side effects are an indication that the vaccine is working. Vaccination is the best way to prevent flu and its complications.
Myth: It is not necessary to be immunised against flu every year because protection lasts from previous vaccinations.
Fact: The flu virus strains circulating in the community change from year to year. Because of this, a new vaccine is made each year to protect against the current strains. Vaccination is especially important this year as few people have pre-existing immunity against pandemic H1N1.
Myth: Only the elderly are at risk for developing serious complications from the flu virus.
Fact: Influenza impacts people of all ages. Young children are at higher risk of severe infections than older children and adults, and pandemic H1N1 typically causes more severe disease in pregnant patients during all stages of pregnancy.
Myth: If I missed the chance to get an influenza vaccination before the winter season, I have to wait for next year.
Fact: It’s never too late to be vaccinated. The best time is before the flu season but vaccination during the flu season is still beneficial as the virus circulates well into winter and early spring.
Myth: Too many vaccinations may overload a young child’s immune system.
Fact: Everyone’s immune system can respond to a vast number of proteins, such as those included in vaccines. It was estimated that an infant’s immune system can respond to 10 000 of these proteins at one time7.
Myth: I can get pandemic H1N1 from eating pork.
Fact: To date there have been no reported cases of pandemic H1N1 infection in humans due to the consumption of pork. As ingestion is not the normal route of infection, and the virus is readily destroyed by cooking at 70 oC, the chance of this occurring is negligible15.
By Dr Jean Maritz and Dr Leana Maree, medical virologists, Tygerberg Hospital and University of Stellenbosch, September 2010
1Tellier R. Review of aerosol transmission of Influenza A virus. Emerg Inf Dis 2006;12(11): 1657-1662.
2Miller E, Hoschler K, Hardelid P, Stanford E, Andrews N, Zambon M. Incidence of 2009 pandemic influenza A infection in England: a cross-sectional serological study. Lancet 2010;375:1100–08.
3Maritz J, Maree L, Preiser, W. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009: the experience of the first 6 months. Clin Chem Lab Med 2010;48(1):11-21.
4Sullivan SJ, Jacobson RM, Dowdle WR, Poland GA. 2009 H1N1 Influenza. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85(1):64-76.
5World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/csr/don/2010_04_09/en/index.html
6South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases. http://www.nicd.ac.za/
7Tosh PK, Jacobson RM, Poland GA. Influenza vaccines: from surveillance through production to protection. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85(3):257-273.
8Schoub BD. Recommendations pertaining to the use of viral vaccines: Influenza 2010. SAMJ 2010;10(2):88-89.
9Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Summary of 2009 Monovalent H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Data, 26 March 2010. http://vaers.hhs.gov/resources/2010H1N1Summary_Apr01.pdf
10Vaxigrip product monograph. http://www.novaccine.com/pdffiles/vaxigrip_package_insert.pdf
11Tamiflu prescribing information. http://www.gene.com/gene/products/information/tamiflu/pdf/pi.pdf
12Relenza prescribing information. http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_relenza.pdf
13Douglas RM, Hemilä H, Chalker E, Treacy B. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3: CD000980.
14Roxas M, Jurenka J. Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern Med Rev 2007; 12: 25 – 48.
15World Health Organisation, World Organisation for Animal Health and Food and Agriculture Organisation. Consultation on potential risks of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus at the human-animal interface. http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/swineflu/scientific_consultation_h1n1_human_animal.pdf (Accessed 12/04/2010).