A number of factors can contribute to the development of cataracts.
- Ageing. Cataract is associated with ageing and is common in older adults. About 75% of all cataracts are age-related.
- Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (e.g. from sunlight).
- Eye injuries. Both sharp and blunt injuries may cause cataracts.
- Diabetes, especially when blood glucose is poorly controlled.
- Cataract may develop as a result of other eye ailments, including glaucoma and uveitis (inflammation in the eye).
- Long-term use of certain medications, most notably steroids.
- Radiation treatment to the head.
- Hereditary factors. Some babies are born with cataracts (congenital cataracts) or develop them shortly after birth.
Reviewed by ophthalmologist Dr Viresh Dullabh, MBBCh (Wits) FC Ophth SA (CMSA) MMED (UKZN). September 2018.