The two major types are:
- Primary or essential hypertension, that has no known cause, is diagnosed in the majority of people.
- Secondary hypertension is often caused by reversible factors, and is sometimes curable.
This type is also called essential hypertension, and it is by far the most common type of hypertension, and is diagnosed in about 95% of cases. Essential hypertension has no obvious or yet identifiable cause.
Heredity and lifestyle factors
Although the precise origin of primary hypertension is unknown, both genetic (50%) and environmental (50%) factors play a role.
Salt sensitivity, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, a sedentary lifestyle and a diet low in potassium and other nutrients must be considered. Keep in mind that families not only share a ‘gene-pool’, but also many lifestyle habits.
The Silent Killer
It is this common type of hypertension that is responsible for the term, “the silent killer”. Unfortunately, it rarely causes symptoms or signs that could warn individuals. As a consequence, complications may occur before the hypertension is diagnosed and treated. Therefore, all adults must be screened for hypertension every 2 to 5 years.
(Dr Kathleen Coetzee, MBChB)
When is blood pressure considered high?