Male to female surgery procedures

There is an abundance of surgeries that can be done to feminise the features of the Male to Female person.

It is important to note that many MTFs opt for plastic surgery, in order to more drastically feminise their appearance. A list of different kinds of surgeries is given below, with a short description of each.

Otoplasty Facial Feminisation Surgery (FFS)
This is the surgical procedures that alter a 'masculine' face to become a 'feminine' face. FFS comprises bony and soft tissue surgery of the face and trachea. The surgical techniques come from soft tissue plastic surgery, maxillofacial surgery, and reconstructive surgery.

Vaginoplasty
Vaginoplasty is the surgical construction of a vagina through skin inversion. This procedure involves removing the organs and erectile tissue of the penis. The skin and tissue are used to create a vaginal opening, clitoris, clitoral hood and labia. The urethra is kept for urination and the skin and nerves of the glans of the penis can be salvaged for sensitivity.

After surgery, the patient must progressively stretch the vaginal opening, which is done with plastic dilation molds. There is a risk for the rectum or urethra to join with the newly created vaginal canal. Although rare, these complications can result in gas, faeces, and urine in the vagina. Other complications include hardening of the urethra and death of the vaginal tissue.

Bilateral orchiectomy This procedure is another bottom surgery procedure that MTFs can undergo. This procedure involves the removal of both testicles. This is done through an incision in the scrotum. After each testicle is pulled from the scrotum, its spermatic cord is clamped, double sutured to control bleeding, and cut, releasing the testicle. The end of the cord is then placed back in the body.

Transitioning MTFs undergo orchiectomy because it significantly reduces testosterone production. The reduction of testosterone may allow a person with a male body to transition to a woman and to take less oestrogen.

Tracheal shave
This involves surgically reducing the tracheal cartilage (the Adam's apple). A small incision is made at the front of the throat and the cartilage is carved until it is flat. This results in a throat contour that is flatter and more feminine in appearance. Although uncommon, there is a risk of shaving too much cartilage and affecting the vocal chords that lie just behind the trachea. This may permanently affect the voice. - (Health24)

References:
http://www.lgbthealthchannel.com/transgender/surgery.shtml
http://www.gender.org/resources/getting_real.html
http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/f/fa/facial_feminization_surgery.htm

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