Pap test needed only every 3 years

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The annual Pap smear may soon be a thing of the past, since new guidelines say most women need the cervical-cancer screening only once every three years.

In its first update since 2003, the US preventive services task force said a yearly Pap smear isn't necessary for women aged 21 to 65, and that women younger than 21 don't need the test at all because evidence indicates screening doesn't lower cervical-cancer rates or deaths in this youngest group.

Screening every three years after age 21 saves the same number of lives as annual screening, with half the number of biopsies and fewer false-positive results, according to the task force, an independent panel of health experts.

The guidelines were published online in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

"We've moved into an age of less is more, so this is just fine-tuning," said Dr Diana Contreras, division director of obstetrics and gynaecology at Long Island Jewish Medical Centre in New Hyde Park, New York.

"Before we used to have a very large hammer and now our hammer is getting more precise."

What the new guidelines say

More than 12 000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year and 4 000 die from it, according to the US National Cancer Institute.

Pap smears detect abnormalities in cells scraped from the opening of the cervix.

The new guidelines, which are broken down by age group and health history, also say:

  • Women between aged between 21 and 65 can safely extend cervical screenings to every five years if they undergo a human papilloma virus (HPV) test at the same time as their Pap smear. HPV infections, many of which are sexually transmitted, are one of the predominant causes of cervical cancer.
  • Women older than 65 who have had prior screenings and are otherwise not at high risk no longer need Pap smears. Routine screening should continue, however, at least 20 years after resolution of any high-grade pre-cancerous lesions.
  • Women under 30 should not undergo HPV testing since the infection is prevalent in younger women but often clears up without treatment.
  • Women who have undergone a hysterectomy with a removal of the cervix and who have no history of cancerous or precancerous cervical lesions don't need to be screened, since the risks associated with screening outweigh the benefits in this group.
Pathology

"This is a cancer we could get rid of in this country if we were able to screen everyone who needs it," she said, adding that women should continue annual visits to their gynaecologists to monitor other aspects of their reproductive health.Three other national health groups -- the American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology -- simultaneously issued joint cervical-cancer-prevention guidelines that were in line with those released by the task force.

More information

The US National Institute of Health has more about cervical cancer.

(Copyright © 2012 HealthDay. All rights reserved.)

Photo: Laboratory scientist from Shutterstock



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