No single 'out of Africa' migration for humans: Study

Miami - No longer can the tale of one single human migration out of Africa 60 000 years ago be considered an accurate history of humankind, says a review of scientific literature.

Rather, multiple migrations out of Africa, beginning 120 000 years ago, gave rise to the modern population of people, said the findings in the US journal Science.

Advances in DNA analysis and other fossil identification techniques, particularly regarding discoveries in Asia, are helping to rewrite what we thought we knew about our origins.

A "plethora of new discoveries" over the past decade has shown that modern humans, or Homo sapiens, reached parts of the Asian continent much earlier than previously thought, said the report.

Remains of Homo sapiens have been found at multiple sites in southern and central China, going back to between 70 000 and      120 000 years ago.

Other fossil discoveries show that modern humans reached southeast Asia and Australia prior to 60 000 years ago.

DNA sharing

"The initial dispersals out of Africa prior to 60 000 years ago were likely by small groups of foragers, and at least some of these early dispersals left low-level genetic traces in modern human populations," said Michael Petraglia, a researcher at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany.

"A later, major 'Out of Africa' event most likely occurred around 60 000 years ago or thereafter," he said.

Recent research has confirmed that this mass migration 60 000 years ago "contributed the bulk of the genetic make-up of present-day non-Africans," said the report.

These early voyagers interbred with other species, including Neanderthals and Denisovans and one currently unidentified population of pre-modern hominins, in many locations across Eurasia.

Scientists estimate that among modern non-Africans today, 1-4% of the DNA comes from Neanderthals and as much as 5% may be from Denisovans.

"It is now clear that modern humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans and perhaps other hominin groups likely overlapped in time and space in Asia, and they certainly had many instances of interaction," said the study.

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