TIMELINE | Navalny: From poisoning to political outlaw


A Moscow court has banned opposition leader Alexei Navalny's political organisations from working in Russia after officially branding them "extremist".

The Kremlin critic recovered from a dramatic poisoning attack last year only to be jailed in February.

Here is a timeline:


The 44-year-old anti-corruption campaigner is hospitalised on 20 August in Omsk, Siberia, after losing consciousness during a flight.

Put into a medically induced coma, he is transferred two days later to a Berlin hospital at his family's request.


Berlin says on 2 September that tests carried out by a German army laboratory yielded "unequivocal evidence" that he was poisoned with Novichok, a Soviet-era chemical weapon.

Kremlin denial

Two days later the Kremlin rejects claims it was behind the poisoning.

On 7 September Navalny emerges from the coma.

Labs confirm poisoning

French and Swedish laboratories confirm Germany's findings on Novichok.

Putin condemns "unsubstantiated" accusations.

Putin accused

Navalny accuses Putin of being behind his poisoning after he is discharged from the hospital on 22 September.

Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov calls his claims "groundless and unacceptable".

Spooks stung

Navalny releases a recording in October of him tricking a Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) agent into confessing that he tried to kill him.

The FSB describes the phone call as a "provocation".

Defiant return

Navalny says he plans to return home despite a threat of jail.

He is detained on 17 January shortly after landing in Moscow.

'Putin's palace'

To coincide with his arrest, Navalny releases a video of his investigation into a lavish Black Sea palace complex he claims is owned by Putin.

It goes viral as Putin denies it is his.

The authorities round up Navalny's allies.

Protests and prison

In late January tens of thousands of demonstrators demand Navalny's release.

Police detain thousands. On 2 February Navalny is handed a nearly three-year prison term.

Diplomatic crisis

Three days later the Kremlin expels German, Swedish and Polish diplomats for supporting Navalny.

READ | Biden hits Russia with sanctions over Navalny's poisoning in another break from Trump

The three countries expel Russian diplomats in return.

Rights court weighs in

The European Court of Human Rights orders Russia to release Navalny "with immediate effect" on 17 February. Russia accuses it of "interference".

Appeal denied

Three days later a Moscow court dismisses Navalny's appeal, but reduces the sentence to two-and-a-half years.

Separately he is convicted of defamation and fined 850 000 rubles (around 9 500 euros).

The EU on 22 February sanctions four senior Russian officials.

Penal colony

On 26 February Navalny is sent to a penal colony in the Vladimir region about 100 kilometres (60 miles) east of Moscow.

Five days later Washington sanctions seven senior Russians.

Navalny says on 15 March he is locked up in a "real concentration camp" and accuses Russian authorities of torture by depriving him of sleep.

Hunger strike

On 31 March Navalny announces a hunger strike to demand proper medical treatment.

After more than two weeks, his doctors say his condition has rapidly deteriorated and he could "die any minute" of cardiac arrest.

READ | Jailed Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny says he will start ending hunger strike

On 23 April Navalny says on Instagram he is halting the strike and thanks his supporters.

Supporters targeted

In late April Russian authorities add Navalny's network of regional offices to the country's database of terrorists and extremist organisations.

When judges also designate his Anti-Corruption Foundation (FBK) Wednesday as "extremist", British Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab calls the move "Kafka-esque".

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