But what does this mean? Where do you go to from here, and how do you deal with this information?
According to Professor Shirley Kokot (Educational Psychologist at Unisa and president of the National Association for Gifted and Talented Children in South Africa), herself the mother of 3 gifted children, there are many different definitions for describing a child who is gifted.
“I like to use the following definition: A child who has the potential or ability to perform at an extraordinary level in one or several fields as compared to same-aged peers with a similar cultural and educational background,” she said.
However, she added that there was a clear distinction between a clever child and a gifted one.
“A 'clever' child is not necessarily a gifted child, nor is an 'above average' child necessarily gifted. Clever and above-average children succeed academically in schools designed for the average. Gifted children don't fit well into 'average' schools.
“It’s also important to remember that some children have the potential for giftedness but due to cultural or educational disadvantages, might not show the potential in various settings.”
Gifted or prodigy?
There are many terms used to explain an extraordinary child, although many of them are not entirely correct. However, Kokot pointed out that there is a very clear distinction between a child who is gifted, and one who can be described as a prodigy.
“A child prodigy is one who shows a particular talent in a performance area that is highly unusual for his/her age. It is also an extremely rare phenomenon and is a label given to a child who is performing at this particularly advanced level. No-one has the potential to be a prodigy; you either are or you aren't,” she said.
Kokot claimed that there is no such thing as a child genius and claimed that a genius is “a label given to an adult who has proven over the years that s/he has made a remarkable contribution to some aspect of human activity - and so very few exist in the world.”
“These are those who can be equated with Einstein and his ilk but no child has yet done that. These are terms used very incorrectly in our society.”
What makes a child ‘gifted’?
According to Kokot, a child can be gifted in various ways - generally intellectually gifted, gifted in a specific area (eg: language/ maths), creative in the artistic sense (either in the performing or fine arts), creative in terms of innovative thinking ability, a gifted leader or a gifted sportsman.
“Generally, we refer to intellectually gifted children as 'gifted'. All the others are usually referred to in terms of talent in a specific area. Hence the term 'gifted and talented children' which is used internationally,” she said.
The following are indicators often present in a gifted child:
- Unusual alertness during infancy
- Long attention span
- High activity level
- Less need for sleep
- Advanced development through milestones
- Keenly observant
- Extreme curiosity
- Excellent memory
- Early and excellent vocabulary development
- Rapid learning ability
- Abstract reasoning
- Advanced ability to play with puzzles, mazes or numbers.
Importance of spotting giftedness early
It is very important to spot the gifted potential in a child as early as possible, Kokot said, so that the child can be given the educational environment needed to nurture their gift and prevent negative signs from appearing.
Signs teachers should look out for
Kokot claimed that there are 2 types of behaviour a teacher should look out for in learners to determine if they are gifted or not.
She said that the obvious sign is of a child who finds learning easy - but stressed that teachers should also look for the 'opposite side of the coin' as frequently the “bored, cheeky, unmotivated, sarcastic, pain-in-the-neck child may be acting out because of those same characteristics that can, if correctly managed, result in positive behaviours.”
She further stated that there are many unmotivated gifted children in the schools who hide their gifts and are massive underachievers.
Do gifted children have a higher IQ?
One would assume that a child who displays a tendency towards being gifted would have a far higher IQ than their peers. Yet Kokot, who carries out such tests, claimed that having a high IQ is not actually such a reliable indicator of giftedness.
“It’s important to consider developmental and emotional aspects as well; creative children often do not score so well on an IQ test, and, because gifted children may also have learning problems, they do not always do so well on an IQ test.
“Having said all that, it is true that IQ remains one of the media used to identify giftedness and most psychologists can conduct an IQ test. Few may have the knowledge to recognise potential that is there without it showing necessarily on an IQ result,” she said.
Being the parent of a gifted child
As the mother of 3 gifted children, Kokot knows what she’s talking about when it comes to parenting gifted children, although she noted that it was not that much more difficult than being the parent of an average child.
“We only realised they were gifted once they started school but we had no problems. Of course at times, we had to intervene with schools when issues arose that impacted negatively on the children and had to be available to support the children when they went through bad patches - like identity crises, unhappiness with the peer group, unhappiness in unstimulating classrooms, etc.”
One of her daughters is now a clinical psychologist, the other is a filmmaker specialising in animation and her son, Philip, is the co-director and Headmaster of Radford House, a specialised school for gifted children in Joburg.
The ‘problem’ with being gifted
Kokot said there were often problems with children who are gifted as they feel the difference between themselves and the other children.
“They are different, they need to be understood and helped to cope with living in a 'normal' world. Their sensitivity makes their emotional lives sometimes difficult and schools are notoriously boring for them.”
There are also very few opportunities for gifted children to hone their skills and be taught at a level they can appreciate. This is one of the reasons Kokot founded Radford House in 1996 - a unique school which deals exclusively with gifted children.
Teaching the gifted child
Radford House caters for children from Grade 00 (4 years old) and upwards. All children are assessed by an educational psychologist; although Kokot pointed out that there are no specific criteria.
“One looks for signs of high potential, including an interest in learning, curiosity, good memory and simply that 'spark' that we recognise easily. We do not have any IQ cut-off points,” she said.
As there are no teacher training courses available at the moment with regard to this type of education, teacher training is on-going at the school, although Kokot does offer a Certificate Course in Gifted Child Education, which is a one-year course, at Unisa.
The syllabus at Radford follows the general outlines laid down by the GDE, but the approach is very different and broad with younger grades choosing their themes on a term-to-term basis and the teacher incorporating all the subject skills into the theme chosen for that term.
Skills are emphasised above simple rote learning, and critical and creative thinking methods are used widely. Also, multiple intelligences are considered. Classes are small (max. 16) so that children can be encouraged to discuss, debate and take a more active role in the learning experience. Teacher talk is also discouraged.
What happens to the gifted child?
As one might expect, gifted children grow up into gifted adults. Although Kokot pointed out that while many are very well-adjusted people, sometimes they are considered 'oddballs' and suffer from loneliness because they don't fit with or relate easily to others.
Will gifted adults have gifted children?
“The chances are very good - provided that both parents are bright. Obviously if one partner is intellectually challenged, the chances are good that the child may not inherit the 'brains' of the gifted parent!” said Kokot.
She added that most gifted children have highly intelligent parents, yet it is also true that some parents of gifted children are much less intelligent than the child.
“Genes can skip one or two generations, and this can be a source of problems to the child - having one or even both parents who are simply not as 'sharp'.”
Useful contact details:
Professor Kokot can be contacted through the Centre for Integrated Learning Therapy at 012-664-2285 or e-mail her at email@example.com.
Sources: Professor Shirley Kokot, (BA Hons, BEd (SG) MEd (Counselling), DEd, STD); Educational Psychologist at Unisa, and Founder of Radford House School, president of the National Association for Gifted and Talented Children of South Africa and member of the Executive Committee of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children.