Spinal cord injury (SCI) is always a medical emergency and usually occurs when a traumatic event (usually a car, diving or sport accident) results in damage to cells within the spinal cord or severs the nerves. The most common types of SCI include bruising of the spinal cord (contusion) and compression (caused by pressure on the spinal cord).
Other types of injuries include severing or tearing of some nerve fibers, such as damage caused by a gun shot wound, and central cord syndrome (specific damage to the corticospinal tracts of the neck region of the spinal cord).
The types of disability associated with SCI depends on how bad the injury is, where it is and which nerve fibres have been damaged. Usually the higher up in the cervical spine the injury, the greater the damage.
If treated correctly, most people with SCI regain some functions between a week and six months after injury, but the likelihood of spontaneous recovery decreases after six months. Rehabilitation strategies can minimise long-term disability.
- Your child is lying with his head, neck or back in an awkward position
- Severe pain in the head, neck or back
- Weakness, tingling or loss of sensation below the point of injury
- Inability to move arms or legs
- Bruises on the head, neck, shoulders or back
- Loss of bowel or bladder control
- Difficulty breathing
- Symptoms of shock
Even if your child does not have any of these symptoms but you know he has sustained a back, neck or head injury, treat it as a spinal injury. If a head injury was sustained and he has disturbed level of consciousness, suspect a spinal injury as well.
Get help immediately if:
You suspect a spinal injury. The sooner he is treated in hospital, the greater the chances for recovery.
- If you suspect a spinal injury, do not move your child unless he is in imminent danger from, for example, traffic or fire or you need to perform CPR.
- Don't remove helmets unless you need to perform CPR.
- If he must be moved, then there should be one person controlling the neck and head to keep them in alignment, and at least two people on either side of the person to lift him without moving the spine.
- Treat other life-threatening injuries while waiting for help to arrive.
- Keep your child warm.
- Don't give your child anything to eat or drink