Cummins, 20, returned home early from Australia A's tour of South Africa last week with a back complaint in yet another injury setback.
"Pat has some side/back soreness and scans have shown a partial recurrence of his lower back bone stress injury suffered in October last year when he returned home from Champions League," CA Chief Medical Officer Justin Paoloni said in a statement.
"He will be closely monitored to determine his return to the playing field, but expect that he will miss most of the 2013-14 domestic cricket season."
It is yet another setback for the rising young paceman, who has missed the last two Australian domestic summers with back and foot injuries following a remarkable Test debut in 2011.
Cummins claimed man-of-the-match honours against South Africa in Johannesburg, which included claiming 6-79 in the second innings and hitting the winning runs in a narrow Australian victory.
He was also sent home from Australia's one-day tour of England in the middle of last year with a side strain.
Cummins has made just six first-class appearances in three years due to his long list of injuries.