Carberry, who won his lone Test cap against Bangladesh in 2010 but has yet to appear for England in any form of limited-overs international, impressed the selectors with an unbeaten century for Hampshire in their domestic Twenty20 quarter-final win over Lancashire.
The 32-year-old left-handed opener was the only uncapped Twenty20 player in a squad missing rested star batsman Kevin Pietersen but set to be led by regular England T20 captain Stuart Broad.
England's squad contains just two players who've featured in the current Ashes Test series against Australia, in Broad and fast bowler Steven Finn.
If selected in the opening match, on August 29, Carberry will make his England Twenty20 debut on his Hampshire home ground.
"With only eight international T20 matches until the ICC World T20 next April, this series is an important chance for players to show they are capable of performing well at this level," said England national selector Geoff Miller after announcing the squad.
"The two matches will also allow Ashley Giles (England's limited overs coach) and Stuart Broad an opportunity to look at a number of different options.
"This squad combines players with plenty of international experience with players who have impressed at domestic level and who deserve an opportunity to test themselves in an international environment against what will no doubt be a strong Australian side."
England's T20 squad to face Australia:
Stuart Broad (captain), Ravi Bopara, Danny Briggs, Jos Buttler, Michael Carberry, Jade Dernbach, Steven Finn, Alex Hales, Michael Lumb, Eoin Morgan, Boyd Rankin, James Tredwell, Luke Wright.
August 29: 1st T20, Southampton
August 31: 2nd T20, Chester-le-Street