Spielberg - World championship leader Marc Marquez recovered from a crash in practice to qualify for the Austrian MotoGP in fifth place, as Ducati rider Andrea Iannone took pole position.
Italian Iannone came out on top in a thrilling duel with compatriot Valentino Rossi to claim pole for only the second time in his MotoGP career.
He posted a fastest lap of one minute and 23.142 seconds on the Red Bull Ring circuit, with nine-time world champion Rossi just over a tenth of a second down.
Iannone's team-mate Andrea Dovizioso finished third to make it an all-Italian front row.
Honda's Marquez leads the riders' standings by 48 points after winning last time out in Germany, but there were concerns surrounding the 23-year-old when he crashed heavily at turn three during third practice while trying to avoid team-mate Dani Pedrosa.
The four-time world champion was given the all-clear to race after a quick trip to hospital despite dislocating his shoulder, and took advantage by securing a place on the second row.
Rossi, 37, is currently third in the standings behind the Spanish pair of Marquez and Jorge Lorenzo, but will have an excellent chance to claim his third victory of the season from second on the grid on Sunday.
Defending champion Lorenzo was 0.219 seconds slower than Iannone and had to settle for fourth.
Grid for Sunday's MotoGP Austrian Grand Prix at the Red Bull Ring circuit after final qualifying on Saturday:
1. Andrea Iannone (ITA/Ducati) 1min 23.142secs; 2. Valentino Rossi (ITA/Yamaha) at 0.147secs; 3. Andrea Dovizioso (ITA/Ducati) 0.156
4. Jorge Lorenzo (ESP/Yamaha) 0.219; 5. Marc Marquez (ESP/Honda) 0.333; 6. Maverick Vinales (ESP/Suzuki) 0.442
7. Cal Crutchlow (GBR/Honda) 0.455; 8. Scott Redding (GBR/Ducati) 0.635; 9. Aleix Espargaro (ESP/Suzuki) 0.671
10. Hector Barbera (ESP/Ducati) 0.680; 11. Eugene Laverty (IRL/Ducati) 1.076; 12. Dani Pedrosa (ESP/Honda) 1.121