London - Rory McIlroy suffered a Ryder Cup hangover as he struggled to an opening round of 73 in the Alfred Dunhill Links Championship on Thursday.
The world number one, who helped Europe ease to victory over the United States last weekend, made one birdie and two bogeys at Carnoustie, one of the three Scottish courses hosting the tournament.
Scotland's Stephen Gallacher, who lost both his matches at the Ryder Cup, found his form with a four-under-par 68, four shots behind leader Oliver Wilson of England.
Victorious Ryder Cup captain Paul McGinley had to settle for a 72 on his return to action after masterminding the win over the United States at Gleneagles.
Frenchman Victor Dubuisson, who contributed 2 1/2 points to Europe's victory as a rookie, opened with a 71, three shots better than another struggling Ryder Cup team mate, Martin Kaymer of Germany.
Former British Open champion Padraig Harrington carded a 66 to climb to joint third place on the leaderboard, level with fellow Irishman Shane Lowry, one stroke behind Frenchman Raphael Jacquelin and two adrift of Wilson.
The other two courses hosting the tournament are St Andrews and Kingsbarns.
Leading and selected first round scores in the European Tour's Alfred Dunhill Links Championship at St Andrews, Carnoustie and Kingsbarns on Thursday (GBR/IRL unless stated, par 72):
66 - Shane Lowry
67 - Jamie McLeary, Ryan Evans, Eduardo De La Riva (ESP)
68 - Thriston Lawrence (RSA), Richard Green (AUS)
69 - Hennie Otto (RSA), Paul Lawrie, Justin Walters (RSA), Gary Stal (FRA)
70 - Matthew Nixon, Peter Lawrie, Trevor Fisher Jnr (RSA), Scott Jamieson
71 - Richard Bland, Carlos Del Moral (ESP), Thomas Aiken (RSA), Paul Waring, Mark Anguiano (USA), Tom Lewis, Tyrrell Hatton, David Drysdale, Nathan Holman (AUS), Nacho Elvira (ESP), Ashley Hall (AUS)
72 - Brandon Stone (RSA), Nick Dougherty, Jens Dantorp (SWE), Moritz Lampert (GER), Emiliano Grillo (ARG), Romain Wattel (FRA), Danie Van Tonder (RSA), Richard Finch, Niclas Fasth (SWE)
75 - Justin Harding (RSA), Wade Ormsby (AUS)
77 - Jeong Jin (KOR)
79 - Brody Ninyette (AUS)
80 - Dimitrios Papadatos (AUS)
67 - Robert Rock, Adrian Otaegui (ESP)
68 - John Parry, Graeme Storm
69 - Ricardo Gonzalez (ARG), Marcel Siem (GER)
70 - David McKenzie (AUS), Chris Wood, Andrew Sullivan, Shiv Kapur (IND)
71 - Roope Kakko (FIN), Ulrich Van Den Berg (RSA), Sandy Lyle, Darren Clarke, Seve Benson, Pablo Larrazabal (ESP), Alvaro Quiros (ESP)
72 - Steve Webster, Maximilian Kieffer (GER), Gareth Maybin, Ricardo Santos (POR), Matteo Manassero (ITA), Morten Orum Madsen (DEN), James Morrison, Jason Scrivener (AUS), Andrea Pavan (ITA), Julien Quesne (FRA), Michael Hoey
73 - Merrick Bremner (RSA), Nick Cullen (AUS), Darren Fichardt (RSA)
74 - Brett Rumford (AUS)
75 - Jbe Kruger (RSA)
76 - James Kingston (RSA)
78 - Kim Sihwan (KOR)
79 - Oliver Bekker (RSA)
64 - Oliver Wilson
65 - Raphael Jacquelin (FRA)
66 - Padraig Harrington
67 - Gregory Bourdy (FRA)
68 - Stephen Gallacher, Mark Foster, Alexander Levy (FRA)
69 - Paul Casey, Richie Ramsay, Tommy Fleetwood, Ryan Palmer (USA)
70 - Brooks Koepka (USA), David Howell, Louis Oosthuizen (RSA), Christopher Doak
71 - Craig Lee, Nick Faldo, George Coetzee (RSA), Johan Carlsson (Swe), Simon Khan, Thongchai Jaidee (THA), Felipe Aguilar (Chi), Victor Dubuisson (Fra), Ernie Els (RSA), Thorbjorn Olesen (DEN), Keith Horne (RSA), Bernd Wiesberger (AUT)
72 - Adrien Saddier (FRA), Robert Karlsson (SWE), Joost Luiten (NED), Soren Hansen (DEN), Colin Montgomerie, Alejandro Canizares (ESP), Paul McGinley
73 - Rory McIlroy, Matthew Griffin (AUS), Richard Sterne (RSA)
74 - Martin Kaymer (GER)
75 - Ruan De Smidt (RSA), Charl Schwartzel (RSA), Haydn Porteous (RSA)