The incident took place at the weekend in a bar, which challenged punters to down as many shot glasses of whisky, rum and other types of liquor as they could stomach.
The 57-year-old victim's intake beat the local record but his feat ended in tragedy a few hours later when he fell into a coma.
He was rushed to hospital where he died the next day, France Info and France Bleu public radio reported.
The police are investigating the death, including the role of the bar manager, who could face manslaughter charges for serving such dangerous quantities of alcohol, according to the public prosecutor.
Extreme drinking games have claimed the lives of several people recently in Europe.
A game started on social media called NekNominate, which challenged people to "neck" or down a drink in one gulp, was linked to a handful of deaths from injury or alcohol poisoning in Britain and Ireland earlier this year.